Are virtual manipulatives as effective as concrete (hands-on) manipulatives to build conceptual understanding of number concepts and relationships in pre-service middle grades teachers? In the past, the use of concrete manipulatives in mathematics courses for Clayton State University’s preservice middle grades teachers has proven to be a very effective way to build conceptual understanding of a variety of mathematical topics. This paper presents an argument for the need for research into the usefulness of virtual manipulatives for enhancing mathematics teacher education and their potential to supplement (or replace?) concrete manipulatives.
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Hunt, Annita W.
"Virtual vs. Concrete Manipulatives in Mathematics Teacher Education: A Call for Research,"
Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Georgia Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators: Vol. 2
, Article 3.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/gamte-proceedings/vol2/iss1/3