Expectations placed on educators to improve academic performance continue to increase across the United States. One reason for this rise in expectancy is the enactment of The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015. Replacing the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2002, the ESSA mandates that “all students are taught to high academic standards” (ESSA, 2015). Subsequently, educators constantly seek best practices that foster effective learning environments. A component of the learning environment oftentimes excluded from research is the physical structure of a classroom, such as the type of seating in a classroom. Research suggests that students who are expected to spend extended periods of time sitting in traditional desks with limited movement breaks during the school day are at risk for inattention to learning and increased misbehaviors (Wingrat & Exner, 2005). Thus, this quantitative study examined the effect of alternative seating in the form of disc ‘o’ sit cushions on fifth grade students’ time on- and off-task during mathematics instruction. In addition, a survey was administered to determine students’ perceptions of alternative seating.

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