Document Type

Article

Publication Date

1-1-2019

Publication Title

Stats

DOI

10.3390/stats2010001

ISSN

2571-905X

Abstract

Surveys commonly suffer from insufficient effort responding (IER). If not accounted for, IER can cause biases and lead to false conclusions. In particular, Cronbach’s alpha has been empirically observed to either deflate or inflate due to IER. This paper will elucidate how IER impacts Cronbach’s alpha in a variety of situations. Previous results concerning internal consistency under mixture models are extended to obtain a characterization of Cronbach’s alpha in terms of item validities, average variances, and average covariances. The characterization is then applied to contaminating distributions representing various types of IER. The discussion will provide commentary on previous simulation-based investigations, confirming some previous hypotheses for the common types of IER, but also revealing possibilities from newly considered responding patterns. Specifically, it is possible that the bias can change from negative to positive (and vice versa) as the proportion of contamination increases.

Comments

Copyright and Licensing:

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

http://sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/issn/2571-905X/


MDPI Open Access Information Policy:

from https://www.mdpi.com/about/openaccess

All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. This means:

  • everyone has free and unlimited access to the full-text of all articles published in MDPI journals;
  • everyone is free to re-use the published material if proper accreditation/citation of the original publication is given;
  • open access publication is supported by the authors' institutes or research funding agencies by payment of a comparatively low Article Processing Charge (APC) for accepted articles.


Share

COinS