Relatively, until the discovery of America, the Atlantic Ocean was unknown to Europe, but in the last fifty years it has become the centre of the Western civilization, especially the north corner of the Ocean, the North Atlantic. This selectivecentre includes at least half a dozen countries, Canada, USA, England, France, Holland and Germany. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the Atlantic Ocean is more complicated and much larger. La Marquesa de Yolombó is the counterpoint of this notion of exclusion, for three centuries, from the Caribbean sea almost all the wealth of the Spanish empire went to Europe. The North Atlantic Civilization also forgets Brazil and Africa, without the slave trade and the slave labour, such northern countries would not have accumulated the wealth that propelled the Industrial Revolution and modernity itself.

Bio Note

Aruro Ortiz is a full professor at Lenoir-Rhyne University in North Carolina. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Washington at Seattle. His research interests include Afro-Hispanic and Anglophone Caribbean literatures, cultural studies, Latin American literature and culture, and Latino Studies. He has published in Revista Iberoamericana, Revista Hispanica Moderna, Hispanic Jouranl, TextoS, Cuadernos del Guayas, Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Selecta, and I have presented papers at national and international conferences.

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