Location

Atrium

Session Format

Poster Presentation

Research Area Topic:

Engineering and Material Sciences - Mechanical

Co-Presenters, Co- Authors, Co-Researchers, Mentors, or Faculty Advisors

Martin Muinos, Julia Heimberger, Dr. Valentin Soloiu

Abstract

Investigations of Synthetic Fuels: S8 and Sasol IPK to Determine the Possibility of Operation as Alternate Fuels in the Aerospace Industry

Name: Scott Dyke

Co-Authors: Martin Muinos, Julia Heimberger, Dr. Valentin Soloiu,

An ever-growing society that becomes more and more dependent on a finite energy source will eventually exceed its supply. Fossil fuel quantities are continuously decreasing and new solutions are needed. According to the United States Department of Transportation, over 10 billion gallons of airline fuels have been consumed in each of the past 15 years with some years over 13 billion gallons. In the meantime, fuel costs have increased from $.80 per gallon in 2000 to $2.85 per gallon in 2014. This increase in the price of fuel is mostly due to depleting fuel supplies. In 2010, the world jet fuel consumption rate was 5,201.41 barrels per day which equates to over 163,000 gallons consumed per day. This large consumption rate is unsustainable, and alternative fuels must be introduced. Introducing alternate fuel sources will help sustain the world fuel supply and will decrease the United States’ dependence on foreign oils. Synthetic paraffinic kerosenes (SPK) are fuels that were developed to alleviate dependence on petroleum based aviation fuel. S8 and Sasol iso-paraffinic kerosene (IPK) are two possible alternatives to Jet A, a common commercial jet fuel. Sasol IPK is a synthetic fuel derived from coal and S8 is a fuel derived from natural gas. Both fuels were developed using the Fischer-Tropsch method for biofuel production. S8, Sasol IPK, and Jet A were all tested with a calorimeter, viscometer, and TGA-DTA (thermo-gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis). The calorimeter data shows that Sasol and S8 each have a lower heating value of approximately 41 MJ/kg, while Jet A is approximately 42.8 MJ/kg. In Jet A, the viscosity is 1.38cP at 26 degrees Celsius while the viscosity for S8 is 1.3cP Sasol is 1.13cP. The results from the TGA-DTA show that the fuels each exhibit very similar thermal stability. However, due to S8’s low aromatic content, a lubricity additive may be needed. The preliminary fuel analysis show that the fuels exhibit characteristics very similar to an industry standard fuel, Jet A. Further experimentation will include combustion characteristics in a small gas turbine engine.

Keywords

Aerospace, Synthetic fuels, Fuel analysis, Kerosene

Presentation Type and Release Option

Presentation (Open Access)

Start Date

4-24-2015 10:45 AM

End Date

4-24-2015 12:00 PM

Share

COinS
 
Apr 24th, 10:45 AM Apr 24th, 12:00 PM

Investigations of Synthetic Fuels: S8 and Sasol IPK to Determine the Possibility of Alternate Fuels in the Aerospace Industry

Atrium

Investigations of Synthetic Fuels: S8 and Sasol IPK to Determine the Possibility of Operation as Alternate Fuels in the Aerospace Industry

Name: Scott Dyke

Co-Authors: Martin Muinos, Julia Heimberger, Dr. Valentin Soloiu,

An ever-growing society that becomes more and more dependent on a finite energy source will eventually exceed its supply. Fossil fuel quantities are continuously decreasing and new solutions are needed. According to the United States Department of Transportation, over 10 billion gallons of airline fuels have been consumed in each of the past 15 years with some years over 13 billion gallons. In the meantime, fuel costs have increased from $.80 per gallon in 2000 to $2.85 per gallon in 2014. This increase in the price of fuel is mostly due to depleting fuel supplies. In 2010, the world jet fuel consumption rate was 5,201.41 barrels per day which equates to over 163,000 gallons consumed per day. This large consumption rate is unsustainable, and alternative fuels must be introduced. Introducing alternate fuel sources will help sustain the world fuel supply and will decrease the United States’ dependence on foreign oils. Synthetic paraffinic kerosenes (SPK) are fuels that were developed to alleviate dependence on petroleum based aviation fuel. S8 and Sasol iso-paraffinic kerosene (IPK) are two possible alternatives to Jet A, a common commercial jet fuel. Sasol IPK is a synthetic fuel derived from coal and S8 is a fuel derived from natural gas. Both fuels were developed using the Fischer-Tropsch method for biofuel production. S8, Sasol IPK, and Jet A were all tested with a calorimeter, viscometer, and TGA-DTA (thermo-gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis). The calorimeter data shows that Sasol and S8 each have a lower heating value of approximately 41 MJ/kg, while Jet A is approximately 42.8 MJ/kg. In Jet A, the viscosity is 1.38cP at 26 degrees Celsius while the viscosity for S8 is 1.3cP Sasol is 1.13cP. The results from the TGA-DTA show that the fuels each exhibit very similar thermal stability. However, due to S8’s low aromatic content, a lubricity additive may be needed. The preliminary fuel analysis show that the fuels exhibit characteristics very similar to an industry standard fuel, Jet A. Further experimentation will include combustion characteristics in a small gas turbine engine.