Presentation Title

Neoliberalism: Effects on Labor and Education in the U.S.

Location

Room 2905 B

Session Format

Paper Presentation

Research Area Topic:

Education & Learning - Teaching, Learning & Human Development

Co-Presenters, Co- Authors, Co-Researchers, Mentors, or Faculty Advisors

Faculty Advisor: Dr. Delores Liston

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the ill effects of neoliberal ideology on labor and education in the United States since the defeat of Keynesian economics in the United by the 1980s (Aronwitz, 2001; Robertson, 2007; Winfield, 2012). That is, neoliberal policy bears significant responsibility in the decline of labor and public schooling in the United States. Concurrently, over the past few decades there has been a significant transfer of wealth from poor and middle-class Americans to the very top of the income distribution (Piketty, 2014).

While the wealthiest Americans have benefited from much lower taxes on their wealth in the past few decades, there has been a concurrent hollowing of the middle class due largely to automation and less to offshoring (Autor, 2010). Moreover, Congress and state legislatures have reduced appropriations to K-12 and higher education considerably (Leachman & Mai, 2014; Giroux, 2014; Mitchell, Palacios, & Leachman, 2014). Yet at the same time, some of the more affluent Americans have supported the privatization of K-12 (Ravitch, 2010; 2014), a lucrative investment maneuver (Levine & Levine, 2014). Interestingly, these initiatives siphon dwindling funds away from struggling public education (Levine & Levine, 2014; Ravitch, 2014). Thus, it appears the elite are akin to parasites, extracting sustenance from education and labor. That is why this proposal is significant.

Furthermore, this paper draws upon a variety of information to include various government and private research reports on labor and education funding. It also draws from theoretical work in economics and education. Also, it should be noted this work is filtered through the lens of Critical Theory.

References

Abel, J. R., Deitz, R., & Su, Y. (2014). Are recent college graduates finding good jobs?Current Issues in Economics and Finance, 20(1), pp. 1-8. Retrieved from www.newyorkfed.org/research/publication_annuals/index.html

Alexander, M. (2012). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York, New York: The New Press.

Apple, M. W. (2006). Educating the “right’ way: Markets, standards, god, and inequality. New York, New York: Routledge.

Anderson, N. (2014, August). Virginia college presidents skeptical of Obama plan to rate Colleges. The Washington Post. Retrieved fromhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/virginia-college-presidents-skeptical-of-obama-plan-to-rate-colleges/2014/08/05/4384cd46-1ca4-11e4-ab7b-696c295ddfd1_story.html

Arendt, H. (2006). Eichmann in Jerusalem: A report of the Banality of Evil. New York, New York: Penguin Classics. (Original work published 1963)

Aronwitz, S. (2001). The last good job in America: Work and education in the new global technoculture. Lanham, Maryland, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Autor, D. (2010). The polarization of job opportunities in the U.S. labor market: Implications for employment and earnings. Report of the Center for American Progress, The Hamilton Project, MIT Department of Economics and National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://economics.mit.edu/files/5554

Bauman, Z. (2007). Liquid time: Living in an age of uncertainty. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Barkan, J. (2011). Got dough? How billionaires rule our schools. Dissent, 58(1), 49-57. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/dissent/

Carnevale, P., Smith, N., & Strohl, J. (2013). Recovery: Job growth and education requirements through 2020. Retrieved from Georgetown University center on Education and the Workforce website: https://georgetown.app.box.com/s/tll0zkxt0puz45hu21g6

Chaiken, J., Dosa, S., Dungan, S., & Silverstein, S. M. (Producers), & Kornbluth, J. (Director). (2013). Inequality for all [Documentary]. United States.

Chomsky, N. (1999). Profit over people: Neoliberalism and the global order. New York, New York: Seven Stories Press.

Clifton, J. (2015). The big lie: 5.6% unemployment. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/opinion/chairman/181469/big-lie-unemployment.aspx

Coibion, O., Gorodnichenko, Y., & Koustas, D. (2013). Amerisclerosis? The puzzle of rising unemployment persistence. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2013(1), 193-260. Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/about/projects/bpea

Edwards, H. S. (2014, October). The war on teacher tenure. Time, 184(7). Retrieved from http://time.com/3533556/the-war-on-teacher-tenure/

Espinosa, L. L., Crandall, J. R., & Tukibaya, M. (2014). Rankings, institutional behavior, and college and university choice: Framing the national dialogue on Obama’s ratings plan.American Council on Education, Center for Policy Research and Strategy. Retrieved from http://www.acenet.edu/news-room/Documents/Rankings-Institutional-Behavior-and-College-and-University-Choice.pdf

Fain, P. (2013, August 23). Higher education leaders respond to Obama’s ambitious ratings system. Inside higher Ed. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_IgcmsqnVM

Freeburn, C. (2014, May). FB’s Mark Zuckerberg calls Obama to express frustration with U.S.spying. Investor Place. Retrieved from http://investorplace.com/2014/03/fbs-mark- zuckerberg-calls-obama-express-frustration-u-s-spying/#.VO5sSiw9_b5

Freeland, C. (2012). Plutocrats: The rise of the new global super-rich and the fall of everyone else. New York, New York: The Penguin Press.

Giroux, H. A. (2014). Neoliberalism’s war on higher education. Chicago, Illinois: Haymarket Books.

Gramsci, A. (1916, December 22). Newspapers and workers [Pre-prison political writing]. Marxist Internet Archive. Retrieved from http://www.marxists.org/archive/gramsci/

Green, P. C., Baker, B. D., & Oluwole, J. O. (2013). Having it both ways: How charter Schools try to obtain funding of public schools and the autonomy of private schools. Emory Law Journal, 63, 303-337. Retrieved from http://law.emory.edu/elj/

Grignon, P. (2013, February 2). Money as debt II: Promises unleashed [Documentary]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_IgcmsqnVM

Haggerson, N. L. (1991). Philosophical inquiry: Ampliative criticism. In E. C. Short (Ed.), Forms of curriculum inquiry (pp. 43-60). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Kellner, D. (1005). Cultural studies, identity and politics between the modern and the post modern media culture. London, England: Routledge.

Kumashiro, K. K. (2015). Review of proposed 2013 federal teacher preparation regulations. Report of the National Education Policy Center website. Retrieved from http://nepc.colorado.edu/thinktank/review-proposed-teacher-preparation

Leachman, M. & Mai, C. (2014). Most states still funding schools less than before the recession.Retrieved from Center on Budget and Policy Priorities website: http://www.cbpp.org/files/10-16-14sfp.pdf

Levine, M. & Levine, A. G. (2014). Following the money: There’s no business like the ed business. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84, 377-386.

Liptak, A. (2014, April 2). Supreme Court strikes down overall political donation cap. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/03/us/politics/supreme- court-ruling-on-campaign-contributions.html?_r=0

Longworth, R. C. (1998). Global squeeze: The coming crisis for first-world nations. Chicago, Illinois: Contemporary Books.

Louis, D., Robert, D., & Flahive, G. (Producers), & Crooks, H. & Roy, M. (Directors). (2011). Surviving Progress [Documentary]. United States: Big Picture Media Corporation.

Nelson, J. A. (2006). Economics for humans. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press.

Newfield, C. (2008). Unmaking the public university: The forty-year assault on the middle class. Cambridge, England: Harvard University Press.

McLaren, P. & Farahmandpur, R. (2005). Teaching against global capitalism and the new Imperialism. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Medina, J. (2014, June 10). Judge rejects teacher tenure for California. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/03/us/politics/supreme-court-ruling-on- campaign-contributions.html?_r=0

Mills, C. W. (2000). The Power Elite. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1956)

Mitchell, M., Palacios, V., & Leachman, M. (2014). States are still funding higher education below pre-recession levels. Retrieved from Center on Budget and Policy Priorities website: http://www.cbpp.org/files/5-1-14sfp.pdf

Morton, T. (2013). Hyperobjects: Philosophy and ecology after the end of the world. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.

Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the twenty-first century. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Ravitch, D. (2010). The death and life of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. New York, New York: Basic Books.

Ravitch, D. (2014). Reign of error. New York, New York: Vintage Books.

Reckhow, S. & Snyder, J. W. (2014). The expanding role of philanthropy in education Politics. Educational Researcher, 43, 186-195.

Reich, R. (2015, Feburary 2). The share-the-scraps economy [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://robertreich.org/post/109894095095

Rhoads, R., Berdan, J., & Toven-Lindsey, B. (2013). The open courseware movement in Higher education: Unmasking power and raising questions about the movement’s Democratic potential. Education Theory, 63(1), 87-110.

Rifkin, J. (2014). The zero marginal cost society: The internet of things, the collaborative commons, and the eclipse of capitalism. New York, New York: PalgraveMacMillan.

Robertson, S. (2007). ‘Remaking the world’: Neo-liberalism and the transformation of Education and teachers’ labor. Report of the Centre for Globalization, Education, and societies, University of Bristol. Retrieved from http://www.bris.ac.uk/education/people/academicStaff/edslr/publications/17slr

Sahin, A., Song, J. Topa, G., & Violante ,G. (2014). Mismatch Unemployment. American Economic Review, 104, 3529-3564. doi: 10.1257/aer.104.11.3529

Saltman, K. (2012). The rise of venture philanthropy and the ongoing neoliberal assault on public education: The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation. In Watkins, W. H. (Ed.), The assault on public education: Confronting the politics of corporate school reform (pp. 55-78). New York, New York: Teachers College Press.

Savage, C. & Apuzzo, M. (2014, July 9). U.S. spied on 5 American muslims, a report says. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/10/us/politics/nsa- snowden-records-glenn-greenwald-first-look.html

Shear. M. D. (2014, May 25). Colleges Rattled as Obama Seeks Rating System. The New YorkTimes. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/26/us/colleges-rattled-as- obama- presses-rating-system.html

Sloterdijk, P. (2009). Rules for the human zoo: A response to the Letter on Humanism. Environmental and Planning D: Society and Space, 27, 12-18.

Strauss, V. (2014, June 4). Why hedge funds love charter schools. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http:// www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answersheet/wp/2014/06/04/why- hedge-funds-love-charter-schools/ =

Takaki, R. (1993). A different mirror: A history of multicultural America. Boston,

Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company.

The White House, Office of the Press Secretary (2013). Fact sheet on the president’s plan to make college more affordable: A better bargain for the middle class [Press Release]. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/08/22/fact-sheet-president-s-plan-make-college-more-affordable-better-bargain-

Tong, C. H., Tong, L., & Tong, J. E. (2012). High unemployment in the United States: Causes and solutions. Competition Forum, 10, 74-79. Retrieved from http://www.eberly.iup.edu/ASCWeb/journals_cf.html

Underwood, J. & Mead, J. F. (2012, March). Phi Delta Kappan. A smart ALEC threatens public Education, Phi Delta Kappan, 93(6). Retrieved from http://law.emory.edu/elj/

Watkins, W. H. (Ed.). (2012). The assault on public education: Confronting the politics of corporate school reform. New York, New York: Teachers College Press.

Winfield, A. G. (2012). Resuscitating bad science: Eugenics past and present. In Watkins, W. H. (Ed.), The assault on public education: Confronting the politics of corporate school reform (pp. 143-159). New York, New York: Teachers College Press.

Wolfe, C. (2013). Before the law: Humans and other animals in a biopolitical frame. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press.

Zizek, S. (2009). First as tragedy; then as farce. London, England: Verso

Keywords

Neoliberalism, Education, Labor, Privatization, Charter

Presentation Type and Release Option

Presentation (Open Access)

Start Date

4-24-2015 4:00 PM

End Date

4-24-2015 5:00 PM

This document is currently not available here.

Share

COinS
 
Apr 24th, 4:00 PM Apr 24th, 5:00 PM

Neoliberalism: Effects on Labor and Education in the U.S.

Room 2905 B

The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the ill effects of neoliberal ideology on labor and education in the United States since the defeat of Keynesian economics in the United by the 1980s (Aronwitz, 2001; Robertson, 2007; Winfield, 2012). That is, neoliberal policy bears significant responsibility in the decline of labor and public schooling in the United States. Concurrently, over the past few decades there has been a significant transfer of wealth from poor and middle-class Americans to the very top of the income distribution (Piketty, 2014).

While the wealthiest Americans have benefited from much lower taxes on their wealth in the past few decades, there has been a concurrent hollowing of the middle class due largely to automation and less to offshoring (Autor, 2010). Moreover, Congress and state legislatures have reduced appropriations to K-12 and higher education considerably (Leachman & Mai, 2014; Giroux, 2014; Mitchell, Palacios, & Leachman, 2014). Yet at the same time, some of the more affluent Americans have supported the privatization of K-12 (Ravitch, 2010; 2014), a lucrative investment maneuver (Levine & Levine, 2014). Interestingly, these initiatives siphon dwindling funds away from struggling public education (Levine & Levine, 2014; Ravitch, 2014). Thus, it appears the elite are akin to parasites, extracting sustenance from education and labor. That is why this proposal is significant.

Furthermore, this paper draws upon a variety of information to include various government and private research reports on labor and education funding. It also draws from theoretical work in economics and education. Also, it should be noted this work is filtered through the lens of Critical Theory.

References

Abel, J. R., Deitz, R., & Su, Y. (2014). Are recent college graduates finding good jobs?Current Issues in Economics and Finance, 20(1), pp. 1-8. Retrieved from www.newyorkfed.org/research/publication_annuals/index.html

Alexander, M. (2012). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York, New York: The New Press.

Apple, M. W. (2006). Educating the “right’ way: Markets, standards, god, and inequality. New York, New York: Routledge.

Anderson, N. (2014, August). Virginia college presidents skeptical of Obama plan to rate Colleges. The Washington Post. Retrieved fromhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/virginia-college-presidents-skeptical-of-obama-plan-to-rate-colleges/2014/08/05/4384cd46-1ca4-11e4-ab7b-696c295ddfd1_story.html

Arendt, H. (2006). Eichmann in Jerusalem: A report of the Banality of Evil. New York, New York: Penguin Classics. (Original work published 1963)

Aronwitz, S. (2001). The last good job in America: Work and education in the new global technoculture. Lanham, Maryland, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Autor, D. (2010). The polarization of job opportunities in the U.S. labor market: Implications for employment and earnings. Report of the Center for American Progress, The Hamilton Project, MIT Department of Economics and National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://economics.mit.edu/files/5554

Bauman, Z. (2007). Liquid time: Living in an age of uncertainty. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Barkan, J. (2011). Got dough? How billionaires rule our schools. Dissent, 58(1), 49-57. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/dissent/

Carnevale, P., Smith, N., & Strohl, J. (2013). Recovery: Job growth and education requirements through 2020. Retrieved from Georgetown University center on Education and the Workforce website: https://georgetown.app.box.com/s/tll0zkxt0puz45hu21g6

Chaiken, J., Dosa, S., Dungan, S., & Silverstein, S. M. (Producers), & Kornbluth, J. (Director). (2013). Inequality for all [Documentary]. United States.

Chomsky, N. (1999). Profit over people: Neoliberalism and the global order. New York, New York: Seven Stories Press.

Clifton, J. (2015). The big lie: 5.6% unemployment. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/opinion/chairman/181469/big-lie-unemployment.aspx

Coibion, O., Gorodnichenko, Y., & Koustas, D. (2013). Amerisclerosis? The puzzle of rising unemployment persistence. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2013(1), 193-260. Retrieved from http://www.brookings.edu/about/projects/bpea

Edwards, H. S. (2014, October). The war on teacher tenure. Time, 184(7). Retrieved from http://time.com/3533556/the-war-on-teacher-tenure/

Espinosa, L. L., Crandall, J. R., & Tukibaya, M. (2014). Rankings, institutional behavior, and college and university choice: Framing the national dialogue on Obama’s ratings plan.American Council on Education, Center for Policy Research and Strategy. Retrieved from http://www.acenet.edu/news-room/Documents/Rankings-Institutional-Behavior-and-College-and-University-Choice.pdf

Fain, P. (2013, August 23). Higher education leaders respond to Obama’s ambitious ratings system. Inside higher Ed. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_IgcmsqnVM

Freeburn, C. (2014, May). FB’s Mark Zuckerberg calls Obama to express frustration with U.S.spying. Investor Place. Retrieved from http://investorplace.com/2014/03/fbs-mark- zuckerberg-calls-obama-express-frustration-u-s-spying/#.VO5sSiw9_b5

Freeland, C. (2012). Plutocrats: The rise of the new global super-rich and the fall of everyone else. New York, New York: The Penguin Press.

Giroux, H. A. (2014). Neoliberalism’s war on higher education. Chicago, Illinois: Haymarket Books.

Gramsci, A. (1916, December 22). Newspapers and workers [Pre-prison political writing]. Marxist Internet Archive. Retrieved from http://www.marxists.org/archive/gramsci/

Green, P. C., Baker, B. D., & Oluwole, J. O. (2013). Having it both ways: How charter Schools try to obtain funding of public schools and the autonomy of private schools. Emory Law Journal, 63, 303-337. Retrieved from http://law.emory.edu/elj/

Grignon, P. (2013, February 2). Money as debt II: Promises unleashed [Documentary]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_IgcmsqnVM

Haggerson, N. L. (1991). Philosophical inquiry: Ampliative criticism. In E. C. Short (Ed.), Forms of curriculum inquiry (pp. 43-60). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Kellner, D. (1005). Cultural studies, identity and politics between the modern and the post modern media culture. London, England: Routledge.

Kumashiro, K. K. (2015). Review of proposed 2013 federal teacher preparation regulations. Report of the National Education Policy Center website. Retrieved from http://nepc.colorado.edu/thinktank/review-proposed-teacher-preparation

Leachman, M. & Mai, C. (2014). Most states still funding schools less than before the recession.Retrieved from Center on Budget and Policy Priorities website: http://www.cbpp.org/files/10-16-14sfp.pdf

Levine, M. & Levine, A. G. (2014). Following the money: There’s no business like the ed business. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84, 377-386.

Liptak, A. (2014, April 2). Supreme Court strikes down overall political donation cap. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/03/us/politics/supreme- court-ruling-on-campaign-contributions.html?_r=0

Longworth, R. C. (1998). Global squeeze: The coming crisis for first-world nations. Chicago, Illinois: Contemporary Books.

Louis, D., Robert, D., & Flahive, G. (Producers), & Crooks, H. & Roy, M. (Directors). (2011). Surviving Progress [Documentary]. United States: Big Picture Media Corporation.

Nelson, J. A. (2006). Economics for humans. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press.

Newfield, C. (2008). Unmaking the public university: The forty-year assault on the middle class. Cambridge, England: Harvard University Press.

McLaren, P. & Farahmandpur, R. (2005). Teaching against global capitalism and the new Imperialism. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

Medina, J. (2014, June 10). Judge rejects teacher tenure for California. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/03/us/politics/supreme-court-ruling-on- campaign-contributions.html?_r=0

Mills, C. W. (2000). The Power Elite. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1956)

Mitchell, M., Palacios, V., & Leachman, M. (2014). States are still funding higher education below pre-recession levels. Retrieved from Center on Budget and Policy Priorities website: http://www.cbpp.org/files/5-1-14sfp.pdf

Morton, T. (2013). Hyperobjects: Philosophy and ecology after the end of the world. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.

Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the twenty-first century. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Ravitch, D. (2010). The death and life of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. New York, New York: Basic Books.

Ravitch, D. (2014). Reign of error. New York, New York: Vintage Books.

Reckhow, S. & Snyder, J. W. (2014). The expanding role of philanthropy in education Politics. Educational Researcher, 43, 186-195.

Reich, R. (2015, Feburary 2). The share-the-scraps economy [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://robertreich.org/post/109894095095

Rhoads, R., Berdan, J., & Toven-Lindsey, B. (2013). The open courseware movement in Higher education: Unmasking power and raising questions about the movement’s Democratic potential. Education Theory, 63(1), 87-110.

Rifkin, J. (2014). The zero marginal cost society: The internet of things, the collaborative commons, and the eclipse of capitalism. New York, New York: PalgraveMacMillan.

Robertson, S. (2007). ‘Remaking the world’: Neo-liberalism and the transformation of Education and teachers’ labor. Report of the Centre for Globalization, Education, and societies, University of Bristol. Retrieved from http://www.bris.ac.uk/education/people/academicStaff/edslr/publications/17slr

Sahin, A., Song, J. Topa, G., & Violante ,G. (2014). Mismatch Unemployment. American Economic Review, 104, 3529-3564. doi: 10.1257/aer.104.11.3529

Saltman, K. (2012). The rise of venture philanthropy and the ongoing neoliberal assault on public education: The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation. In Watkins, W. H. (Ed.), The assault on public education: Confronting the politics of corporate school reform (pp. 55-78). New York, New York: Teachers College Press.

Savage, C. & Apuzzo, M. (2014, July 9). U.S. spied on 5 American muslims, a report says. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/10/us/politics/nsa- snowden-records-glenn-greenwald-first-look.html

Shear. M. D. (2014, May 25). Colleges Rattled as Obama Seeks Rating System. The New YorkTimes. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/26/us/colleges-rattled-as- obama- presses-rating-system.html

Sloterdijk, P. (2009). Rules for the human zoo: A response to the Letter on Humanism. Environmental and Planning D: Society and Space, 27, 12-18.

Strauss, V. (2014, June 4). Why hedge funds love charter schools. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http:// www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answersheet/wp/2014/06/04/why- hedge-funds-love-charter-schools/ =

Takaki, R. (1993). A different mirror: A history of multicultural America. Boston,

Massachusetts: Little, Brown and Company.

The White House, Office of the Press Secretary (2013). Fact sheet on the president’s plan to make college more affordable: A better bargain for the middle class [Press Release]. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/08/22/fact-sheet-president-s-plan-make-college-more-affordable-better-bargain-

Tong, C. H., Tong, L., & Tong, J. E. (2012). High unemployment in the United States: Causes and solutions. Competition Forum, 10, 74-79. Retrieved from http://www.eberly.iup.edu/ASCWeb/journals_cf.html

Underwood, J. & Mead, J. F. (2012, March). Phi Delta Kappan. A smart ALEC threatens public Education, Phi Delta Kappan, 93(6). Retrieved from http://law.emory.edu/elj/

Watkins, W. H. (Ed.). (2012). The assault on public education: Confronting the politics of corporate school reform. New York, New York: Teachers College Press.

Winfield, A. G. (2012). Resuscitating bad science: Eugenics past and present. In Watkins, W. H. (Ed.), The assault on public education: Confronting the politics of corporate school reform (pp. 143-159). New York, New York: Teachers College Press.

Wolfe, C. (2013). Before the law: Humans and other animals in a biopolitical frame. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago Press.

Zizek, S. (2009). First as tragedy; then as farce. London, England: Verso