Investigation of Low Temperature Combustion Regimes of Biodiesel with n-Butanol Injected in the Intake Manifold of a Compression Ignition Engine

Valentin Soloiu, Georgia Southern University
Marvin Duggan, Georgia Southern University
Henry Ochieng, Georgia Southern University
David Williams, Georgia Southern University
Gustavo Molina, Georgia Southern University
Brian Vlcek, Georgia Southern University


In this study, the in-cylinder soot and NOx trade off was investigated in a Compression Engine by implementing Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) coupled with Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) for selected regimes of 1–3 bars IMEP. In order to achieve that, an omnivorous (multi-fuel) single cylinder diesel engine was developed by injecting n-butanol in the intake port while being fueled with biodiesel by direct injection in the combustion chamber. By applying this methodology, the in-cylinder pressure decreased by 25% and peak pressure was delayed in the power stroke by about 8 CAD for the cycles in which the n-butanol was injected in the intake manifold at the engine speed of 800 rpm and low engine loads, corresponding to 1–3 bars IMEP. Compared with the baseline taken with ultra-low sulfur diesel no. 2 (USLD#2), the heat release presented a more complex shape. At 1–2 bars IMEP, the premixed charge stage of the combustion totally disappeared and a prolonged diffusion stage was found instead. At 3 bars IMEP, an early low temperature heat release was present that started 6 degrees (1.25 ms) earlier than the diesel reference heat release with a peak at 350 CAD corresponding to 1200 K. Heat losses from radiation of burned gas in the combustion chamber decreased by 10–50% while the soot emissions showed a significant decrease of about 98%, concomitantly with a 98% NOx reduction at 1 IMEP, and 77% at 3 IMEP, by controlling the combustion phases. Gaseous emissions were measured using an AVL SESAM FTIR and showed that there were high increases in CO, HC and NMHC emissions as a result of PCCI/LTC strategy; nevertheless, the technology is still under development. The results of this work indicate that n-butanol can be a very promising fuel alternative including for LTC regimes.