Investigation of Low Temperature Combustion Regimes of Biodiesel with n-Butanol Injected in the Intake Manifold of a Compression Ignition Engine
In this study, the in-cylinder soot and NOx trade off was investigated in a Compression Engine by implementing Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) coupled with Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) for selected regimes of 1–3 bars IMEP. In order to achieve that, an omnivorous (multi-fuel) single cylinder diesel engine was developed by injecting n-butanol in the intake port while being fueled with biodiesel by direct injection in the combustion chamber. By applying this methodology, the in-cylinder pressure decreased by 25% and peak pressure was delayed in the power stroke by about 8 CAD for the cycles in which the n-butanol was injected in the intake manifold at the engine speed of 800 rpm and low engine loads, corresponding to 1–3 bars IMEP. Compared with the baseline taken with ultra-low sulfur diesel no. 2 (USLD#2), the heat release presented a more complex shape. At 1–2 bars IMEP, the premixed charge stage of the combustion totally disappeared and a prolonged diffusion stage was found instead. At 3 bars IMEP, an early low temperature heat release was present that started 6 degrees (1.25 ms) earlier than the diesel reference heat release with a peak at 350 CAD corresponding to 1200 K. Heat losses from radiation of burned gas in the combustion chamber decreased by 10–50% while the soot emissions showed a significant decrease of about 98%, concomitantly with a 98% NOx reduction at 1 IMEP, and 77% at 3 IMEP, by controlling the combustion phases. Gaseous emissions were measured using an AVL SESAM FTIR and showed that there were high increases in CO, HC and NMHC emissions as a result of PCCI/LTC strategy; nevertheless, the technology is still under development. The results of this work indicate that n-butanol can be a very promising fuel alternative including for LTC regimes.