Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion and Emissions Using N-Butanol and Methyl Oleate

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Direct Injection of methyl oleate and PFI of n-butanol were used to conduct Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) and minimize exhaust emissions in reference to conventional diesel combustion. Methyl oleate was investigated for validation of a single fatty acid methyl ester as a surrogate for biodiesel in engine operation. An experimental common rail engine was operated in RCCI and conventional diesel combustion modes under constant boost and similar combustion phasing. The RCCI strategy used two pulses of direct injections with a fixed first injection at 60° before top dead center and a varied second injection for smooth combustion. Ringing intensity was reduced by 70% for methyl oleate RCCI compared to diesel conventional diesel combustion. The molecular oxygen from methyl oleate allowed a reduction in soot by 75% and 25% compared to diesel in RCCI and conventional diesel combustion operation, respectively. Compared to conventional diesel combustion, NOx and soot decreased for RCCI by several orders of magnitude with both emissions approaching near zero levels at low load. The fuels produced a stable RCCI operation where mechanical efficiency was sustained within 2% for same-load points and the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure was limited to 2.5%.