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Background: About 47% of children < 5 years of age are stunted in Guatemala. In this study, the investigators aimed to compare growth and cognitive outcomes between children in second grade that attended five Guatemala City Municipal Nurseries (GCMN) vs. same sex, grade, and age-matched children. Methods: A cross-sectional design nested in a retrospective cohort was implemented between 2015 and 2019. Children that attended the GCMN and matched controls completed a math test and validated receptive language and fluid intelligence tests. The primary caregivers completed a sociodemographic survey. General and generalized linear mixed effect models were used to compare children that attended the GCMN vs. controls. The models were adjusted by maternal education, sex, asset score, and other relevant covariates. Results: Children that attended the GCMN exhibited greater math and fluid intelligence scores relative to the controls in the adjusted models (ß = 6.48; 95% CI (2.35–10.61)) and (ß = 1.20; 95% CI (0.12–2.29)), respectively. Lower odds of stunting were significant for children who went to any early childcare institution (AOR = 0.28; 95% CI (0.09–0.89)). Conclusions: The importance of integrating nutrition and high-quality early childhood education interventions in cognitive and growth outcomes is highlighted in this study. The GCMN model may be a scalable model in similar low-resource settings.


Georgia Southern University faculty members, Ana M. Palacios, Matthew B. Flynn, and Helen W. Bland co-authored Children Receiving a Nutrition and High-Quality Early Childhood Education Intervention Are Associated with Greater Math and Fluid Intelligence Scores: The Guatemala City Municipal Nurseries.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.