Term of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science in Biology

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (restricted to Georgia Southern)

Committee Chair

James H. Oliver, Jr.

Committee Member 1

W. Keith Hartberg

Committee Member 2



Adult males recently ecdysed from second, third, or fourth instar nymphs had a complete reproductive system which included paired testes, paired vasa deferentia, a single seminal vesicle, a single ejaculatory duct, and an accessory gland with 2 single and 8 paired lobes. Each accessory gland lobe was composed of one type of tissue, spongy or granular. Probable secretory flow in these lobes was outlined. Cytological descriptions of spermatogenesis were similar to those reported for other tick species. Primary spermatocytes, under-going the first meiotic division, possessed 9 autosomal bivalents and 1 sex bivalent, 2n=2G. Spermatogenesis was complete in a few unfed fifth instar nymphs examined and in all unfed-unmated adult males examined. Unfed-unmated adult males 2 weeks post-ecdysis could mate with fed adult females which would subsequently lay viable eggs. The female reproductive system of fourth instar nymphs (which could ecdyse into adult females) was complete, except for absence of paired ampullae, and included a single ovary, paired oviducts, a single uterus, a vagina, and paired accessory glands. Primary oocyte development was divided into 5 growth phases. Meiotic divisions of oocytes were not observed. Accumulation of sperm in ampulla of adult females, absence of sperm in the ovary and proximal portions of the oviducts, and apparent decreased pliability of eggs after passing through ampullae indicated that fertilization may occur in the ampullae.

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