Term of Award

Spring 1980

Degree Name

Master of Arts

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (restricted to Georgia Southern)


Department of Psychology

Committee Chair

Gary E. Dudley

Committee Member 1

Georgelle Thomas

Committee Member 2

Paul R. Kleinginna, Jr.


Thirty androgynous females, 30 androgynous males, 30 feminine females, and 30 masculine males participated at either a masculine-linked task (wiring a telephone), a feminine-linked task (doing needlepoint), or a neutral task (doing anagrams). Half of the subjects were given success feedback; half were given failure feedback. Each subject, after receiving feedback, completed a post-task questionnaire from which causal attribution ratings for four factors: ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, were obtained. Scores were analyzed by means of 4x3x2 multivariate analyses of variance."Success" subjects attributed success to ability (F=18.007, df=1/96, p<.0001) and effort (F=9.787, df=1/96, p<.01). While "failure" subjects attributed failure to task difficulty (F=19.370, df=1/96, p<.00001) and luck (F=6.618, df=1/96, p<.05). Androgynous females made maximal use of effort to explain success, while masculine males were highest in effort attributions for failure. Androgynous males made significantly lower internal (ability and effort) attributions than androgynous females. It is suggested that it is becoming increasingly more acceptable for females to exhibit more positive masculine traits, but incorporation of feminine traits by males is not so favored due to the continued pressure on males to be masculine in a stereotypical sense.


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