Term of Award

Spring 1999

Degree Name

Master of Science

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (restricted to Georgia Southern)


Department of Health and Kinesiology

Committee Chair

James McMillan

Committee Member 1

Kevin L. Burke

Committee Member 2

A. Barry Joyner


The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of discomfort, optimism, and pessimism on anticipation time, reaction time, and handgrip strength. Thirty-eight participants read and signed an informed consent form and completed a personal statement questionnaire prior to participation. A test/re-test design was used to assess LOT-R, PASS, anticipation time, choice reaction time, and handgrip strength during two treatment sessions (discomfort or no discomfort). The McGill Pain Rating Index (PRI) was only measured during the discomfort session, after all testing was completed, but before removal of the stimulus. A series of four two-way ANOVA's data analysis failed to reveal interactions (p>.0125) between treatment groups and gender for anticipation time or reaction time. However, a main effect was noted for gender within average right handgrip strength (ARCS) (p=.000) and average left handgrip strength (ALGS) (p=.000) Inverse relationships were present for ARGS and gender (r=-.781), ALGS and gender (r=-.808) during no discomfort, and ARGS and gender (r=-.742), ALGS and gender (r=-..837) during discomfort. A direct relationship was revealed for ARGS and ALGS (r=.912) during the no discomfort treatment group and for ARGS and ALGS (r=.902) for the discomfort treatment group. In conclusion, results indicate that the induction of discomfort using a modified blood pressure cuff does not affect an athlete's performance in regards to anticipation time, reaction time, and handgrip strength.


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