Term of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science in Kinesiology with an Emphasis in Sport Psychology

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (restricted to Georgia Southern)


Department of Public Health

Committee Chair

Kevin L. Burke

Committee Member 1

A. Barry Joyner

Committee Member 2

Barry A. Munkasy


The Antecedents-Consequences Model (ACM) (Vallerand, Colavecchio, & Pelletier, 1988) is a theoretical model dealing with individuals' perceptions of momentum. A basic premise of the model states there are situational and personal variables involved in the perception of momentum. Situational variables may include momentum starters, such as a steal or a dunk in basketball. Momentum starters may lead to feelings and perceptions of greater psychological momentum. In order for these variables to enhance perceptions of control, the events must be attributed to the self and not to external sources (Weiner, 1985). This personal control in the situation and/or need for control of the individual is a fundamental psychological variable that establishes whether psychological momentum is perceived. The need for control plays a vital role in one's understanding of the environment and of important achievements, such as sport (Vallerand et al., 1988). While the ACM suggests that personal control is a factor in perceiving momentum, no supporting literature was found. The purpose of the present study was to explore the spectator aspect of the ACM by determining the relationship between levels of personal control and numbers of perceptions of positive momentum. Data were collected at ten men's and women's intercollegiate basketball games. Participants consisted of basketball knowledgeable graduate and undergraduate students (N = 68) at an NCAA Division I university. Each participant observed one-half of a basketball game. Participants offered individualized definitions of momentum, and personal control was assessed using the Belief in Personal Control Scale (BPCS) (Berrenberg, 1987). A momentum inventory (Burke, Aoyagi, Joyner, & Burke, 2003) was also used to establish perceptions of momentum during games. The inventory required that participants denote game times and scores when momentum occurred, as well as events that initiated, occurred during, and ended momentum. Results showed a significant negative correlation between numbers of perceived momentum sequences and personal control scores, which suggests that an individual who scored higher on the BPCS perceived less momentum sequences, supporting the ACM. No gender differences were found for numbers of perceived momentum sequences or personal control.


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