Term of Award

Spring 2024

Degree Name

Master of Science, Civil Engineering

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (open access)

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Department of Civil Engineering and Construction

Committee Chair

Dr. Xiaoming Yang

Committee Member 1

Dr. Junan Shen

Committee Member 2

Dr. Soonkie Nam


The understanding of Bender Element mechanism and utilization of Particle Flow Code (PFC) to simulate the seismic wave behavior is important to test the dynamic behavior of soil particles. Both discrete and finite element methods can be used to simulate wave behavior. However, Discrete Element Method (DEM) is mostly suitable, as the micro scaled soil particle cannot be fully considered as continuous specimen like a piece of rod or aluminum. Recently DEM has been widely used to study mechanical properties of soils at particle level considering the particles as balls. This study represents a comparative analysis of Voigt and Best Fit theorem with DEM simulation. Multiple disk shaped uniformly distributed particles are arranged in a square shaped box. This particles are vibrated with a BE that generates shear and compressive wave within boundary area. Wave velocity is then recorded based on the movement of the particles at specific locations. Both S and P wave velocity is monitored based on the contact stiffness for both triangular and square arrangement. The study summarizes that DEM can accurately simulate the wave behavior. Also it shows that first peak method is a promising way to measure wave velocity. However, deviation between theoretical and simulation result occurs due to assuming non uniform stress and discrete element media.

OCLC Number


Research Data and Supplementary Material