Term of Award

Summer 2022

Degree Name

Master of Science, Kinesiology - Exercise Science Concentration

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (open access)

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Department of Health and Kinesiology

Committee Chair

Gavin Colquitt

Committee Member 1

Christopher Modlesky

Committee Member 2

Li Li


Introduction: Cerebral palsy is one of childhood's most common developmental disabilities. Cerebral palsy leads to dysfunction in the upper extremities due to symptoms such as low muscle power, spasticity, and increased tone. A modified throwing assessment was constructed to examine throwing performance as a measure of upper extremity function. Purpose: To determine if the modified throwing assessment is a reliable measure of throwing performance and if the modified throwing assessment is a valid measure of upper extremity power in children with CP. Methods: The study employed a test-retest design aimed at determining the reliability of a modified throwing assessment. Seven participants participated in two separate testing sessions, which occurred 7-10 days apart. Participants performed a maximal throwing test while seated in a standard wheelchair. They were instructed to throw as far as possible. The participants also performed an accuracy assessment where the participants threw at an eight-foot by eight-foot target overlaid with gridlines. Finally, the participants completed pulldowns while seated in the standard wheelchair to measure upper extremity power. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated good to excellent correlations in all tested conditions except for relative error in the X-axis and the peak power in the left arm. Standard errors of measurement showed that all tests were within acceptable ranges. Pearson's correlations indicated good to excellent correlations between the throwing battery and the maximal pulldowns. Conclusions: The modified throwing assessment was deemed a reliable measure of throwing performance and a valid measure of upper extremity power.

Research Data and Supplementary Material