Term of Award

Spring 2022

Degree Name

Master of Science, Mechanical Engineering

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (restricted to Georgia Southern)

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Department of Mechanical Engineering

Committee Chair

Mujibur Khan

Committee Member 1

Bishal Silwal

Committee Member 2

Hossain Ahmed


This research developed a new three-dimensional printing technique using a coaxial spinneret to be able to print different biomaterials such as Argos and Gelatin with cells. The methods used a 3D printer incorporating a coaxial spinneret and syringe pump viscous gel feeding system to be able to function during the printing process. The viscus biomaterials exit from the tip of the coaxial spinneret and accumulate layer by layer on a cold plate to form the 3D structures. The distinct flow of cells in Biomaterials and only biomaterials is possible through core and shell combination. Agarose gel and gelatin were performed to observe the functionality of the printer with the coaxial spinneret. Solutions of 0.5%, 0.6%, 0.7%, 0.8%, 0.9%, and 1.0% agarose gel were made throughout the research process to find the right viscosity that would flow through the spinneret. For the gelatin, solutions with 7.4 grams of gelatin powder mixed with 50 ml, and 100 ml of deionized water were made to find the right flow viscosity that would pass through the coaxial spinneret.The orifice diameter of the fine tip coaxial spinneret was 2.2 mm and was found that the 0.8% of agarose gel and 50 ml of water made gelatin were able to construct a three-dimensional structure. The ultra-fine spinneret couldn’t acquire any successful trials due to the removable top tubing attachment, allowing air to get in and viscous material not able to flow through the spinneret. Due to this result, a newly designed spinneret was manufactured to observe the capabilities of printing with dimensions of 1mm. The newly manufactured spinneret was able to print the 50 ml of water mixed with gelatin powder but had difficulties with the agarose gel due to the material properties of the spinneret. Using these solutions, three-dimensional printed scaffolds were fabricated using the modified printer with the coaxial spinneret and syringe pump feeding system. In-vivo trials were performed at the Georgia Cancer Research Center in Augusta, Georgia to observe how the cells behaved with agarose and gelatin. When combining the cells with agarose, a high percentage of the cells died off, while the gelatin trial had many of the cells survive.

Research Data and Supplementary Material


Available for download on Tuesday, April 20, 2027