Term of Award

Summer 2019

Degree Name

Master of Science in Biology (M.S.)

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (open access)

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Department of Biology

Committee Chair

Lance Durden

Committee Member 1

Risa Cohen

Committee Member 2

Joshua Gibson


Three herbicide formulations, Roundup® Ready to Use Weed and Grass Killer, Bayer Advanced Southern Weed Killer for Lawns and Pure 20% Vinegar Solution were directly applied to eggs of four species of butterflies, Danaus plexippus, Papilio cresphontes, Papilio polyxenes and Papilio troilus. Roundup and Bayer Advanced containing 2,4-D, mecoprop-p and dicamba significantly reduced hatch success in all four species. Lethal and sublethal effects of these herbicides on the earthworm, Eisenia andrei, was also examined. Direct contact by E. andrei with a heavy dose of the herbicides applied to tops of soil 24 hours prior was lethal to earthworms. In a separate study, an amount equal to a light overspray was applied to soil on top of burrowing worms and no increase in mortality or reduction in reproduction was seen. However, we saw a trend of reduced reproduction coupled with increased adult weight in the light overspray with acetic acid that was significant and bears further study.

OCLC Number


Research Data and Supplementary Material