Term of Award

Summer 2017

Degree Name

Master of Science in Kinesiology (M.S.)

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (open access)

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Department of Health and Kinesiology

Committee Chair

Brandonn Harris

Committee Member 1

Jody Langdon

Committee Member 2

Drew Zwald


Studies have suggested that imagery has a positive effect on performance in a variety of sports. The PETTLEP model (Holmes and Collins, 2001) includes the seven minimum elements sport psychologists incorporate into their imagery scripts. The PETTLEP model is the most comprehensive imagery model, thus providing the most functional equivalence. Golf is the interest of this study, with research stating that imagery has an overall positive impact on golf performance (Nicholls & Polman, 2005). However, studies involving the PETTLEP model have not been investigated thoroughly. There are several shots that have not been studied with the PETTLEP model, therefore this investigation will aim to shrink the gap in literature by measuring the impact on a short 30-yard shot. Thus, it was hypothesized that the use of a PETTLEP imagery intervention will significantly increase golfer’s short-shot accuracy to the pin. Additionally, it was hypothesized that imagery ability will increase across phases. The participants were 5 skilled (average score > 100) male golfers. A single-subject, ABA (baseline, intervention, return-to-baseline) design was implemented. The study occurred over a 5-week period at a local golf course. Each golfer attempted 20 shots from 30 yards away. Imagery ability was measured using the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R) and the Motivational Imagery Ability Measure for Sport (MIAMS). The effectiveness of the imagery intervention on short-shot accuracy was assessed using visual inspection and graphs. Results demonstrated improvements in accuracy to the pin for five out of five participants from baseline to intervention. Results evidenced that four out of five participants decreased in accuracy during the return-to-baseline phase. Two out of five participants increased in imagery ability during the intervention. Changes in mean and variability were also evaluated using effect sizes, and suggested that two out of five participants varied less during the intervention phase. Implications of the present study include underlining the impact PETTLEP imagery has on golf performance, specifically when utilized in a pre-performance routine. Results suggest that practicing PETTLEP imagery aids in short-shot accuracy and assists in improving imagery ability.

Research Data and Supplementary Material