Term of Award

Summer 2017

Degree Name

Master of Science in Kinesiology (M.S.)

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (open access)

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Department of Health and Kinesiology

Committee Chair

John Dobson

Committee Member 1

Greg Ryan

Committee Member 2

Stephen Rossi


Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) increases in order to meet metabolic demands as a result of exercise primarily through way of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). This study aimed to build on previous research in finding the best method to rapidly decrease HR and BP after exercise during the recovery period. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a breathing technique on HRR and BPR within a healthy female population during an exercise recovery period compared to active recovery and upright passive recovery. METHODS: Nine moderately trained female participants were recruited to complete this study. Participants cycled at 70% of their predicted HRmax for 15 minutes followed by one of three recovery interventions for five minutes: 6 breaths per minute (BRE), active recovery (ACT), and passive recovery (PASS). Participants completed all three recovery protocols following exercise on three separate visits. HR and BP were measured were measured before, during, and after exercise up to 5 minutes. HR and BP after exercise were converted into HR recovery (HRR) and BP recovery (BPR) by subtracting the recovery values from peak HR and peak BP. RESULTS: Statistical analysis yielded a significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect of time for HRR up to 3 minutes and a significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect of protocol for HRR with BRE resulting in the fastest HRR. Statistical analysis also yielded a significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect of time for BPR but found no significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect of protocol nor a significant interaction between time and protocol for BPR. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that BRE can increase HRR after exercise more rapidly than PASS or ACT but none of the three protocols have an influence on BPR.

Research Data and Supplementary Material