Term of Award

Spring 2015

Degree Name

Master of Science in Kinesiology (M.S.)

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (open access)

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Department of Health and Kinesiology

Committee Chair

Stephen Rossi

Committee Member 1

Jim McMillan

Committee Member 2

Amy Jo Riggs


The purpose of the present study was to validate a 7-site ultrasound imaging protocol to predict percent body fat (%BF) in a Division I football team. Body composition was estimated by ultrasound, seven site skinfolds (SKINFOLD), and the three compartment-water (3C-W) model of Siri (1961), using Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) to estimate total body water (TBW) and air-displacement plethysmography (BODPOD®) to determine body density (Db). Pearson’s product-moment correlation analyses were run to determine between ΣUltrasound and the criterion 3C-W, and between the ΣSkinfold and ΣUltrasound. Strong positive correlations were observed between ΣSkinfold and ΣUltrasound (r=.984; pUltrasound and %BF from 3C-W (r=0.878, pUltrasound, (%BF= 6.194+(.096* ΣUltrasound); standard error of the estimate [SEE]=2.97%). Cross validation analyses were performed using an independent sample of 29 players. Mean observed %BF and mean predicted %BF were 18.32 ± 6.26% and 18.78 ± 6.22%, respectively. The constant error (CE), SEE and validity coefficient (r) were 0.004%, 2.64%, and 0.91, respectively. The total error (TEE) was 2.87%. Conclusion: The positive relationship between ultrasound measurements and the 3C-W model suggests the B-mode ultrasound may be a practical alternative of predicting %BF in Division I football players.