The Measurement of Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women: Validation of the Self-Efficacy Scale

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Nursing Measurement




Background and Purpose: This study assessed the psychometric properties of a modified self-efficacy scale—the Pregnancy-Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (P-ESES). Methods: Pregnant women completed the P-ESES and physical activity questionnaires (N = 88). Results: Internal consistency was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha (α = 0.838) and equallength Spearman–Brown (α = 8.22). Squared multiple correlation coefficients were calculated showing 9 of 10 items with values greater than the desired .5. A nonrotated exploratory principal components analysis confirmed the same 9 of 10 items loaded on a single factor, accounting for 46.1% of the variance. Each item had an acceptable load value of .40 or higher. Conclusions: Initial testing of the P-ESES confirmed validity and reliability with the exception of 1 item from the original measure: “Exercising without physician approval.”