Safe Management of Chronic Pain in Pregnancy in an Era of Opioid Misuse and Abuse
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing
Safe and effective management of chronic pain in pregnancy is challenging. Use of over-the-counter analgesics, opioids, opioid substitution therapies, complementary and alternative therapies, antidepressants, and anxiolytics each have benefits and risks for the mother and neonate that must be considered. Because of their potency, opioids are often used despite associated risks for adverse effects, abuse, diversion, and addiction. Development of a pain management protocol for the counsel and care of pregnant women with pain is necessary.
Pritham, Ursula A., Laura McKay.
"Safe Management of Chronic Pain in Pregnancy in an Era of Opioid Misuse and Abuse."
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 43 (5): 554-567.