Spatial reasoning is defined as the ability to generate, retain, and manipulate abstract visual images. In chemistry, spatial reasoning skills are typically taught using 2-D paper-based models, 3-D handheld models, and computerized models. These models are designed to aid student learning by integrating information from the macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic domains of chemistry. Research has shown that increased spatial reasoning abilities translate directly to improved content knowledge. The recent explosion in the popularity of smartphones and the development of augmented reality apps for them provide, a yet to be explored, way of teaching spatial reasoning skills to chemistry students. Augmented reality apps can use the camera on a smartphone to turn 2-D paper-based molecular models into 3-D models the user can manipulate. This paper will discuss the development, implementation, and assessment of an augmented reality app that transforms 2-D molecular representations into interactive 3-D structures.

First Page


Last Page




Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

2018_v.2_article3 (Augmented Realitly).pdf (121 kB)
Supplemental Reference List with DOIs