Religiousness and Spirituality: An Analysis of a Practice-Oriented Retreat
Retreatants at a Jesuit retreat center were surveyed to determine their levels of religiousness and spirituality. A cross-tabulation was done to compare self-rated religiousness and spirituality with observed categories of religiousness and spirituality. This study found that religiousness and spirituality were not mutually exclusive and suggested a new set of concepts: Spiritual but less religious and Religious but less spiritual. Various dependent variables were used to examine the outcomes of the retreat based on these new concepts as independent variables. A disparity existed between retreatants’ self-rated religiousness and spirituality and the empirically observed categories of religiousness and spirituality. Retreatants believed they were more spiritual and religious than they really were. In general, those who were religious benefited more from the retreat than those who were spiritual.
Smith, William L., Pidi Zhang.
"Religiousness and Spirituality: An Analysis of a Practice-Oriented Retreat."
Sociological Viewpoints, 27 (1): 57-75: Pennsylvania Sociological Society.