Presentation Title

A Systematic Review of Sex-based Differences in Diarrheal Disease and Helminthic Infections

Location

Nessmith-Lane Atrium

Session Format

Poster Presentation

Research Area Topic:

Public Health & Well Being - Epidemiologic Research

Abstract

Background/Objective: Qualitative evidence suggests that inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (a risk factor for diarrheal and helminthic pathogens) affect women disproportionately. The main objective of our systematic review is to quantify the burden of helminthic and diarrheal pathogens between sexes. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed in June 2014 and searched the World Health Organization website. Articles dealing with the public health relevance of helminthic and diarrheal diseases, focusing on access to clean water and the primary caretakers role in access to clean water, and highlighting the role of gender in water, hygiene and sanitation were included. Findings: In studies of individuals aged 5 years and above, cholera showed significantly lower prevalence in males (OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.34, 0.94)), while S. mansoni, hookworm and all forms of infectious diarrhea showed a significantly higher prevalence in males (OR 1.50; 95% CI (1.22, 1.84), 1.66; 95% CI (1.19, 2.31), 1.26; 95% CI (1.09, 1.46) respectively). When studies included participants of all ages, only S. mansoni showed a significant association of prevalence with gender (OR 1.55; 95% CI (1.41, 1.70)). Odds ratios of prevalence for Ascaris and Trichiuris showed significant effect modification with the location of study (continent). Significance: Effect modification seen in the case of Ascaris and Trichiuris may be reflective of the difference in social norms and occupational cultures between continents and thereby suggests that policy level changes at the regional level may be effective in ameliorating gender related disparities in prevalence of helminths and infectious diarrheal diseases.

Presentation Type and Release Option

Presentation (Open Access)

Start Date

4-16-2016 10:45 AM

End Date

4-16-2016 12:00 PM

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Apr 16th, 10:45 AM Apr 16th, 12:00 PM

A Systematic Review of Sex-based Differences in Diarrheal Disease and Helminthic Infections

Nessmith-Lane Atrium

Background/Objective: Qualitative evidence suggests that inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (a risk factor for diarrheal and helminthic pathogens) affect women disproportionately. The main objective of our systematic review is to quantify the burden of helminthic and diarrheal pathogens between sexes. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed in June 2014 and searched the World Health Organization website. Articles dealing with the public health relevance of helminthic and diarrheal diseases, focusing on access to clean water and the primary caretakers role in access to clean water, and highlighting the role of gender in water, hygiene and sanitation were included. Findings: In studies of individuals aged 5 years and above, cholera showed significantly lower prevalence in males (OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.34, 0.94)), while S. mansoni, hookworm and all forms of infectious diarrhea showed a significantly higher prevalence in males (OR 1.50; 95% CI (1.22, 1.84), 1.66; 95% CI (1.19, 2.31), 1.26; 95% CI (1.09, 1.46) respectively). When studies included participants of all ages, only S. mansoni showed a significant association of prevalence with gender (OR 1.55; 95% CI (1.41, 1.70)). Odds ratios of prevalence for Ascaris and Trichiuris showed significant effect modification with the location of study (continent). Significance: Effect modification seen in the case of Ascaris and Trichiuris may be reflective of the difference in social norms and occupational cultures between continents and thereby suggests that policy level changes at the regional level may be effective in ameliorating gender related disparities in prevalence of helminths and infectious diarrheal diseases.