PFI of n-Butanol and Direct Injection of Biodiesel to attain LTC for Low Emissions Idling in a Compression Engine

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title







In this study, n-butanol (port fuel injection) PFI was investigated in a direct injection compression ignition engine while at idling speeds, and loads, 1–3 bar IMEP (indicated mean effective pressure) in order to determine the effects on combustion, efficiency, emissions, and specifically, a modified tradeoff of soot and nitrogen oxides. As a result, the engine entered into (low-temperature combustion) LTC regions, for selected loads and speeds. Compared with the baseline taken with ultra-low sulfur diesel no. 2, the heat release with n-butanol in (premixed charge compression ignition) PCCI mode, has resulted in a 75% reduction from the maximum values, while a secondary peak appeared where the diffusion combustion typically occurs in the power stroke. At 3 bar IMEP an early, (bottom dead center) BTDC low-temperature heat release was found that began 6° earlier than for the diesel reference cycle, and corresponding to 1200 K. Soot emissions showed a massive decrease of about 98%, concurrently with a 74% reduction of nitrogen oxides at 3 IMEP by controlling the combustion phases and by modifying the classical NOx–soot tradeoff. The results of this work prove that biodiesel combined with n-butanol PFI in PCCI and LTC are very effective in simultaneously reducing soot and NOx at idling speeds.


Copyright belongs to Elsevier. Information regarding the dissemination and usage of journal articles can be accessed through the following links.Â