Poultry Fat FAME Biodiesel Blends Characteristics and Performance in an IDI Engine for APU Applications

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SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition Proceedings




This study investigates the combustion, emissions, and performance of biodiesel produced from poultry fat FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) in an indirect injection (IDI) engine. The poultry fat FAME blends were evaluated against ultra-low sulfur diesel #2 (ULSD#2) at 2600 rpm at 100% engine load. The tested biodiesel blends of poultry fat FAME included B20 to B50 measured by weight percentage in ULSD#2. Before engine testing, the energy content, dynamic viscosity, and thermal properties were measured for all poultry fat blends, 100% poultry fat FAME, and ULSD#2. Once the preliminary data had been obtained, it was determined that a blend of up to 50% poultry fat FAME would be within ASTM6751 requirements. The ignition delay stayed constant at 13 CAD for all blends tested and the gross heat release for ULSD#2 and B50 were 24.4 and 25.0 J/deg respectively. The maximum in-cylinder combustion temperature reached 1915K for B20 while combustion duration ranges from 28.4-30.4 CAD for all fuel blends. The total heat flux from the gas to the combustion chamber walls was in the range of 1.5-1.6 MW/m2 and increased as the percentage of FAME increased. The mechanical and overall efficiency was relatively the same for all the poultry fat blends tested at approximately 86% and 30%, respectively. NOX emissions of B50 were similar to ULSD with a value of approximately 3.1 g/kWh in the experimental engine. The soot value for ULSD was 0.3 g/kWh and decreased by 30% for B50. The study suggests poultry FAME fuel as a viable option for use as an alternative fuel in terms of energy efficiency in IDI engines.