An Integrative Attributional Perspective of Empowerment and Learned Helplessness: A Multimethod Field Study
Journal of Management
A multimethod study was conducted to explore the relationship between empowerment and Learned Helplessness (LH). Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine the attributions, expectancies, affect, and behaviors associated with empowerment and LH. Thematic, nonparametric, and parametric analyses of interview, questionnaire, and observational data indicated reliable and reciprocal differences between empowered and LH individuals regardless of the method used for measuring the data. Implications of the results and refinements to theories of empowerment and LH are discussed.
Campbell, Constance, Mark J. Martinko.
"An Integrative Attributional Perspective of Empowerment and Learned Helplessness: A Multimethod Field Study."
Journal of Management, 24 (2): 173-200: SAGE Publication.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639802400203 source: https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639802400203