Self-Efficacy for Learning Mathematics Asynchronously: Instrument Refinement and the Relationship to Mathematics Achievement

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Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching


The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a two-part study. Study 1 was conducted to refine and validate a survey instrument, SELMA (Hodges, 2008), used to measure learners’ self-efficacy toward learning mathematics in online or technology-intensive, asynchronous learning environments. Study 2 was conducted to investigate the relationships between self-efficacy to learn mathematics asynchronously, using the revised instrument from Study 1, and achievement in College Algebra. A statistically significant relationship was observed. The findings are discussed in the context of designing online mathematics courses similar to the one highlighted for these studies. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.