Title

Managers’ outward influence tactics and their consequences: an exploratory study

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

11-1-1999

Publication Title

Leadership & Organization Development Journal

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1108/01437739910292616

ISSN

0143-7739

Abstract

An exploratory investigation of the outward influence tactics used by practicing managers. Narrative accounts of 117 successful and unsuccessful influence attempts were content analyzed and categorized using Flanagan’s critical incident approach. Chi‐square analyses and Spearman Rank‐Order correlations were used to compare successful and unsuccessful influence tactics and determine the reasons these methods were employed. Similar to previous investigations, which focused on lateral and upward influence tactics, communicating facts and data in a rational manner was the most frequently used outward influence approach. Success was more likely when a combination of tactics was used and when more than one agent was involved. Successful attempts were associated with the achievement of objectives, creation of a positive image, and improved business relationships. Negative attempts were associated with a jeopardized future business relationship and generation of negative feelings. The implications of the findings and future research directions are identified.

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