Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title





This paper examines the efficacy of telemedicine (TM) technology compared to traditional face-to-face (F2F) visits as an alternative healthcare delivery service for managing diabetes in populations residing in urban medically underserved areas (UMUPAs). Retrospective electronic patient health records (ePHR) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were examined from 1 January 2019 to 30 June 2021. Multiple linear regression models indicated that T2DM patients with uncontrolled diabetes utilizing TM were similar to traditional visits in lowering hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. The healthcare service type significantly predicted HbA1c % values, as the regression coefficient for TM (vs. F2F) showed a significant negative association (B = −0.339, p < 0.001), suggesting that patients using TM were likely to have 0.34 lower HbA1c % values on average when compared with F2F visits. The regression coefficient for female (vs. male) gender showed a positive association (B = 0.190, p < 0.034), with HbA1c % levels showing that female patients had 0.19 higher HbA1c levels than males. Age (B = −0.026, p < 0.001) was a significant predictor of HbA1c % levels, with 0.026 lower HbA1c % levels for each year’s increase in age. Black adults (B = 0.888, p < 0.001), on average, were more likely to have 0.888 higher HbA1c % levels when compared with White adults.


Georgia Southern University faculty member, Lisa Ariellah Ward, Gulzar H. Shah, Jeffery A. Jones, Linda Kimsey, and Hani Samawi co-authored Effectiveness of Telemedicine in Diabetes Management: A Retrospective Study in an Urban Medically Underserved Population Area (UMUPA).



Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.