Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title



10.3390/ healthcare11020261


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three different physical training approaches to improving cadets’ fitness variables. Retrospective data for male and female land management law enforcement officers attending a 15-week training program at three separate time points were provided for analysis. The time points reflected the three different training approaches, including calisthenic training (CT) = 83, functional fitness training (FT) = 90, and strength training (ST) = 110. Inferential data analysis was used to find which mode of exercise had the greatest impact on body composition, cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, agility, and flexibility. All groups displayed decreases in body fat percentage, with weight loss being more significant within the CT and FT groups, while the ST group increased in body weight. The CT group had the greatest flexibility increases compared to the FT and ST groups. ST training elicited significantly smaller changes in cardiovascular endurance than the FT and CT groups. ST training showed greater improvements in lean mass, while CT and FT showed greater increases in flexibility and endurance. These results suggest that training protocols can increase performance and optimize the abilities to perform job tasks in tactical athletes.


Georgia Southern University faculty members, Bridget Melton and Haresh Rochani co-authored Evolution of Physical Training in Police Academies: Comparing Fitness Variables.


Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.