Term of Award

Fall 2013

Degree Name

Master of Arts in Social Sciences (M.A.)

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (open access)


Department of Sociology and Anthropology

Committee Chair

M. Jared Wood

Committee Member 1

Sue M. Moore

Committee Member 2

Lance K. Greene


The Lincoln Trail site (9BN17) is an Irene phase (AD 1300-1580) village located in southeastern Bryan County, Georgia within the Richmond Hill Wildlife Management Area (WMA). Prior surface survey (ca. 1973, 2010) indicated an extensive artifact scatter and complex of shell middens in a marsh-edge environment, yet little was known of the site’s nature and no subsurface survey was conducted. 9BN17 was selected as a case study for a broad research query to identify the structure of mainland Irene phase polities and the role that this site played within one. The site was systematically shovel tested, revealing numerous middens, and intact cultural features. Perusal of Georgia Archaeological Site File (GASF) data and review of the prevailing literature revealed a highly patterned distribution of Irene phase sites across Bryan Neck that was consistent with the dispersed town model proposed for barrier island Irene settlement. As a result, Lincoln Trail was determined to be a largely intact Irene phase village that displays the characteristics of a village center that likely served a larger dispersed town.

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