Term of Award

Spring 2013

Degree Name

Master of Science in Applied Engineering (M.S.A.E.)

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (open access)

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Department of Mechanical Engineering

Committee Chair

Mohammad Ahad

Committee Member 1

Rocio Alba-Flores

Committee Member 2

Mosfequr Rahman


Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a non-invasive technique used to evaluate neuromuscular conditions by using a quantitative parameter called impedance (Z). It relies upon the application and measurement of high-frequency, low-intensity electrical current imbedded over a localized muscle to determine its opposition to current flow. In brevity, impedance determines the resistance of muscle fibers due to changes in muscle composition. The objective of this thesis was to establish a relationship between muscles at rest and during isometric contractions at various force levels(25%, 50%, and 100% of maximum voluntary contraction) of the biceps brachii over a multifrequency spectrum. Impedance measurements due to muscle fatigue was further studied and compared to muscles under static conditions. It was discovered that isometric contractions had a direct, but nonlinear effect on impedance measurements; as force increased, resistance and reactance decreased on the bicep. On the other hand during muscle fatigue, only the resistance increased and the reactance saw a decline. Supporting data was presented for seven healthy males, with ages ranging from 22 to 26 years. Evidence justified that resistance at maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) correlated to the greatest difference of 12.80% whereas a percent difference of 4.63 was calculated for 25% of the MVIC. Reactance decreased from an average of 11.165 Ω at rest to 9.6025 Ω at 100% maximum isometric contraction. In a similar fashion, the resistance values saw a reduction during muscle fatigue of the biceps brachii with an 11.24% decrease. However, the average reactance increased 3.58% from the muscle at rest to the muscle during fatigue. This research study will provide an understanding of underlying muscle tissue composition during dynamic changes using a quick, pain-free, and portable bioimpedance device.

Research Data and Supplementary Material