Term of Award

Summer 2011

Degree Name

Master of Arts in History (M.A.)

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (open access)

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Department of History

Committee Chair

Alan C. Downs

Committee Member 1

Jonathan Bryant

Committee Member 2

Cathy Skidmore-Hess


Red Power activism in the United States and Canada during the 1940s and 1950s is primarily localized, consisting of several tribes or particular regions of tribes simultaneously, but separately protesting local, state, or federal legislation that threatened aspects of their tribal sovereignty. The occupation of Alcatraz Island in 1969 by a group called Indians of All Tribes marked the beginning of pan-Indian activism, inspiring diverse, indigenous efforts to bring about social change. The localism of native activism before the occupation of Alcatraz also extended to intratribal divisions which is illustrated by two separate activist events in the Mohawk communities of Kahnawake and Akwesasne.

Research Data and Supplementary Material