Distance Comparison Assessment in 3D Point Cloud Models Georeferenced via Static GNSS and Rapid RTK
Term of Award
Master of Science, Civil Engineering
Document Type and Release Option
Thesis (restricted to Georgia Southern)
Copyright Statement / License for Reuse
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Department of Civil Engineering and Construction
Committee Member 1
Committee Member 2
This work considers a 3D virtual point-cloud model, generated via a terrestrial light detection and ranging (T-LiDAR) procedure, to compare the relative inaccuracy introduced by two different georeferencing approaches, one is based on a Rapid Real Time Kinematic (RTK) Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and the other is based on the more accurate Static GNSS approach. The goal of this study is to determine statistical length discrepancies in the same distances extracted from the two differently georeferenced virtual 3D spatial models. For that purpose, a 3D model of a portion of the Engineering building, at the Statesboro Campus of Georgia Southern University, was generated using a laser-based scanner, Leica Geosystems’ C10 ScanStation, and Leica’s Cyclone post processing software package. Then, the coordinates of four (4) control ground points (fixed points), within the scanned area, were acquired using rapid RTK GNSS and static GNSS approaches. The resulting, complete, virtual 3D model was georeferenced twice on the official Georgia East State Plane Coordinate System (GA E SPCS). One time using control-point coordinates obtained with the rapid RTK-GNSS approach and one time with control-point coordinates acquired with the more accurate static GNSS approach. The static GNSS coordinates were collected in the field during four (4) or more continuous hours of observation. Then, the acquired raw data was submitted to the User Service (OPUS) for correction and processing. The rapid RTK GNSS data was directly acquired in the field, in real time, via the privately owned eGPS network of fixed ground bases in Georgia and Alabama. For this, the employed Leica’s GS14 GNSS antenna and its handheld controller, Leica’s CS10, had to be connected to the Internet via a WiFi signal generated by an android-based cellular telephone. To determine the discrepancy in measured distances from the two differently georeferenced models, the same one hundred (100) points were identified simultaneously in each of the two georeferenced models. Out of those points, seven (7) were randomly selected to serve as center points. From each center point, distances were virtually measured to the other ninety-nine (99) points in both virtual models. Then, the discrepancy of each pair of corresponding distances was calculated and its statistics were determined. A full analysis of those discrepancies is presented in this study.
Ibrahim, Usman Kayode, "Distance Comparison Assessment in 3D Point Cloud Models Georeferenced via Static GNSS and Rapid RTK" (2021). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 2302.
Research Data and Supplementary Material
Available for download on Wednesday, July 01, 2026