Term of Award

Summer 2017

Degree Name

Master of Science in Kinesiology (M.S.)

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (open access)

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Department of Health and Kinesiology

Committee Chair

Nicholas Murray

Committee Member 1

Jessica Mutchler

Committee Member 2

Barry Munkasy


Introduction: Baseline evaluations provide vital information for clinicians, as they are a representation of an athlete’s healthy clinical state. It has been recommended when an athlete sustain a concussion, they be administered a re-baseline evaluation, as the effects of a single concussion are not well documented. Limited literature was found which examines re-baseline examinations following a concussion. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate cognitive and postural deficits, in athletes who sustained a concussion, at the conclusion of the athletic season. Methods: 38 concussed athletes (CONC) were matched on sport and gender with 38 healthy controls (NORM). All athletes were administered a baseline and re-baseline assessment including the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Within the CONC group, 9 athletes were identified and matched on the same criteria to be evaluated using center of pressure (CoP) metrics. CoP metrics included Sample Entropy and Peak Excursion Velocity in Mediolateral (M/L) and Anteroposterior (A/P) directions, and a 95% Confidence Ellipse (95% CE) during eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) static stances. Twelve repeated measure ANOVAs were used to evaluate differences between evaluations, with statistical significance set 0.05 a priori. Results: Repeated measure ANOVAs revealed the SAC was statistically significant over time (p = .004) but not between groups. There was no significance observed with the BESS for time (p = 0.339) or group (p = 0.164). Sample Entropy in the A/P direction, during EO static stance did reveal a statically significance between group x time interaction at re-baseline (p = .023) Discussion: The results of this study indicate re-baseline evaluations should include the SAC to assess changes in cognition. The BESS may not be an applicable assessment for re-baseline evaluations as athletes returned to baseline values – with no obvious practice effect. CoP metrics allow for a more sensitive assessment for postural imbalances, however only SampEn may be beneficially during re-baseline evaluations. Future research should examine the use of re-baseline on a yearly basis, which may show changes in cognition and posture.

Research Data and Supplementary Material