Term of Award

Summer 2016

Degree Name

Master of Science in Kinesiology (M.S.)

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (open access)

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Department of Health and Kinesiology

Committee Chair

Amy Jo Riggs

Committee Member 1

Brandonn Harris

Committee Member 2

Adam Wells

Committee Member 3

John Dobson

Committee Member 3 Email



The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of halftime sports drink ingestion on second half performance in U16 female soccer players using GPS technology. While 12 players initially took part in the study, only six players were included in the analysis (age, 15.97±0.45 years; height, 159.62±5.35cm; body mass, 54.87±4.25; body mass index, 21.58±2.10 kg·m-2). In a double-blinded study design, twelve U16 female soccer players were randomly assigned to two groups (carbohydrate- sports drink or placebo). During half time of each game, players were provided with 500 ml of a drink and consumed the same liquid at halftime during all games of the first weekend, with the opposite beverage consumed during friendly matches on a subsequent weekend. Absolute running distance, distance covered per minute, distance covered in each of six velocity categories, and game load were tracked using GPS/HR during 2 games on 2 consecutive weekends. Distance covered at walking speed was significantly higher for the sports drink group (F = 11.026; p= .007), specifically in the second half. Consequently, sports drink influenced distance covered at low-intensity running speed (F= 7.275; p= .021), while placebo group decreased distance covered in the second half comparing to first half, supplementation group increased from first to second half. There were no significant changes between groups for any other speed velocities variables. Despite the lack of significance found between groups, this study found a decrease in performance from first half to second half at fast running (F = 6.807; p= 0.024), and high intensity running speed (F = 19.648; p≤.001). No significant results were found at distance covered per minute. This study conclude that sports drink ingestion have no benefit in preventing deterioration in performance, and overall sports drink did not influence youth female soccer players performance throughout a weekend of games

Research Data and Supplementary Material