Term of Award

Spring 2008

Degree Name

Master of Science in Kinesiology (M.S.)

Document Type and Release Option

Thesis (open access)

Copyright Statement / License for Reuse

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Department of Health and Kinesiology

Committee Chair

Jonathan N. Metzler

Committee Member 1

Daniel R. Czech

Committee Member 2

George W. Shaver


Hostile-controlling coaching behaviors, which can include screaming obscenities and placing blame on the athletes, can lead to counterproductive responses such as withdrawal from sport and decreased performance. Research has shown individuals who perceive coaches to be blaming increase their own self-blame (Conroy & Coatsworth, 2007). Individual difference variables may moderate how athletes respond to hostile-controlling coaching behaviors. The purpose of the current research was to examine fear of failure, need for achievement, and self-esteem as individual difference moderators of interpersonal and intrapsychic reactions to hostile controlling coaching behaviors. After controlling for autonomy support, fear of failure and self-esteem were significant predictors of self-blame. Self-esteem significantly predicted differences in self-affirmation.

Research Data and Supplementary Material