Measuring Exercise Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women: Psychometric Properties of the Pregnancy-Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (P-ESES)

Helen Bland, Georgia Southern University
Bridget Melton, Georgia Southern University
Elaine S. Marshall, Rural Health Research Institute
Jacquelyn A. Nagle, University of Pittsburg


Background and Purpose: This study assessed the psychometric properties of a modified self-efficacy scale—the Pregnancy-Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (P-ESES).

Methods: Pregnant women completed the P-ESES and physical activity questionnaires (N = 88).

Results: Internal consistency was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha (α = 0.838) and equallength Spearman–Brown (α = 8.22). Squared multiple correlation coefficients were calculated showing 9 of 10 items with values greater than the desired .5. A nonrotated exploratory principal components analysis confirmed the same 9 of 10 items loaded on a single factor, accounting for 46.1% of the variance. Each item had an acceptable load value of .40 or higher.

Conclusions: Initial testing of the P-ESES confirmed validity and reliability with the exception of 1 item from the original measure: “Exercising without physician approval.”