Title

Beyond the Baby Blues. Cross-Cultural Perspective on Perinatal Mental Health

Conference Strand

Social Change, Leadership, and Advocacy

Abstract

Postpartum depression is not “the baby blues.” Perinatal mood disorders (PMD) affect up to one in five individuals across socioeconomic strata, cultures and communities. Culturally sensitive awareness and care is imperative to struggling individuals. This session examines silent barriers to women, underprivileged, and marginalized populations around PMD, and promotes advocacy and multiculturally competent training for mental health counselors.

Description

Myth: Postpartum depression (PPD) and perinatal mood disorders (PMD) manifest the same symptoms worldwide.

Myth: There is overwhelming cross-cultural research on the subject.

Facts: While up to 80% of new moms get “the baby blues” (Bashiri & Spielvogel, 1999), statistics as high as one of five women develops PMD between conception and one year after childbirth (Santoro & Peabody, 2010). PMD encompasses mental health concerns that might arise among pregnant and new mothers. The World Health Organization (WHO, 2008) states that individuals who have just given birth have an increased rate (15-19%) of mental disorders-particularly depression- in developing countries than developed countries (10-13%). Factors including poverty, migration, extreme stress, exposure to violence, natural disasters, and low social support all increase risk (Fisher et. al., 2012), and all of these factors are experienced among populations here in the United States. While PPD and PMD manifests worldwide, the majority of research focuses on middle class Caucasian women that creates a gap in literature from a culturally diverse perspective (Heck, 2018). WHO (2008) suggests supporting programs with gender sensitive, human rights- and equity-oriented strategies. There is an ever-increasing need for improved awareness and advocacy of culture- and gender-sensitive counseling for individuals who might experience PMD. This session will work to bring awareness of the prevalence, cultural factors, socioeconomic factors, and need for the conversation to be sensitive and mindful around PMD. This session will also examine cross-cultural symptomology and therapies used to treat PMD (Alshehri, et. al., 2018; Santoro & Peabody, 2010), a brief review of efficacy, a critical analysis of multicultural competencies, and suggestions for culturally relevant recommendations when counseling individuals experiencing PMD.

Evidence

Alshehri, A. A. A., Alhasel, H. M. B., & Abdelgadir, H. S. (2018). Effectiveness of Psychological Intervention in Management of Postpartum Depression. Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine, 71(1).

Bashiri, N., & Spielvogel, A. M. (1999). Postpartum depression: a cross-cultural perspective. Primary Care Update for OB/GYNS, 6(3), 82-87.

Bray, B. (2018, January 8). Speaking to the needs of women in counseling. Retrieved from https://ct.counseling.org/2018/01/speaking-needs-women-counseling/

Brockington, I. (2017). Suicide and filicide in postpartum psychosis. Archives of women's mental health, 20(1), 63-69.

Fisher, J., Mello, M. C. D., Patel, V., Rahman, A., Tran, T., Holton, S., & Holmes, W. (2012). Prevalence and determinants of common perinatal mental disorders in women in low-and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 90, 139-149.

Gress-Smith, J. L., Luecken, L. J., Lemery-Chalfant, K., & Howe, R. (2012). Postpartum depression prevalence and impact on infant health, weight, and sleep in low-income and ethnic minority women and infants. Maternal and child health journal, 16(4), 887-893.

Heck, J. L. (2018). Screening for Postpartum Depression in American Indian/Alaska Native Women: A Comparison of Two Instruments. American Indian and Alaska native mental health research (Online), 25(2), 74.

Maternal mental health and child health and development in low and middle income countries. WHO. 2008; 1-39.

O'hara, M. W., & Swain, A. M. (1996). Rates and risk of postpartum depression—a meta-analysis. International review of psychiatry, 8(1), 37-54.

Postpartum Depression Facts. National Institute of Mental Health. Retrieved on October 11, 2018 from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/postpartum-depression-facts/index.shtml.

Santoro K, Peabody H (2010). Identifying and treating maternal depression: strategies and considerations for health plans. National Institute for Health Care and Management Research and Educational Foundation, Washington. 2010; 1-28.

Format

Individual Presentations

Biographical Sketch

Renae Kibler is a graduate student at Georgia Southern University, Pursuing a M.Ed. in Counselor Education, Clinical Mental Health Counseling. Renae’s undergraduate studies in anthropology-specifically biology and reproduction-led her to working with women birthing in both the home and hospital as a doula. She continues to incorporate these experiences as she weaves mental health, advocacy, gender identity, women’s and minority issues into her theoretical orientation and approach to counseling. Renae Is completing her internship experience at GSU’s Counseling Center and is passionate about working with women and individuals in times of major transitions.

Pamela C. Wells is an assistant professor at Georgia Southern University and the clinical mental health counseling concentration coordinator. Her research interests include mindfulness and counselor education, spirituality, and creativity in the classroom. Prior to joining academia, Pam worked in university student affairs.

Location

PARB 128

Start Date

2-9-2019 10:15 AM

End Date

2-9-2019 11:30 AM

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Feb 9th, 10:15 AM Feb 9th, 11:30 AM

Beyond the Baby Blues. Cross-Cultural Perspective on Perinatal Mental Health

PARB 128

Postpartum depression is not “the baby blues.” Perinatal mood disorders (PMD) affect up to one in five individuals across socioeconomic strata, cultures and communities. Culturally sensitive awareness and care is imperative to struggling individuals. This session examines silent barriers to women, underprivileged, and marginalized populations around PMD, and promotes advocacy and multiculturally competent training for mental health counselors.