Aquaporin (AQP) Channels in the Spiny Dogfish, Squalus Acanthias II: Localization of AQP3, AQP4 and AQP15 in the Kidney

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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology




Three aquaporin water channel proteins, AQP3, AQP4 and AQP15 were localized to cells within the kidney of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, using an immunohistochemical approach. Dogfish kidney has two zones, the bundle zone (including five nephron segment bundles) and the sinus zone (with two major loops). In order to discriminate between the two loops, the cilia occurring in the first proximal/intermediate loop were labeled with two antibodies including an anti-acetylated tubulin antibody. The second late distal tubule loop (LDT) was identified, as the nephron in that region has no luminal cilia. Strong staining of the rabbit anti-dogfish AQP3, AQP4 (AQP4/2) or AQP15 polyclonal antibodies localized to LDT tubules. These antibodies were further co-stained with a mouse anti-Na+,K+-ATPase a5 monoclonal antibody, as Na+,K+-ATPase has previously been suggested to localize to the early distal tubule (EDT) and LDT and a mouse anti-NKCC T4 antibody, as NKCC2 was previously suggested to be located in the EDT and the second half of the LDT. In the LDT, strong AQP4/2 and AQP15 antibody staining localized together with the strong Na+,K+-ATPase antibody staining, whereas strong AQP3 antibody staining was largely separate but with an overlapping distribution. Very low levels of AQP4/2 antibody basal membrane staining was also detected in the first proximal /intermediate loop of the sinus zone. There was no mouse anti-NKCC T4 antibody staining apparent in the LDT. In the convoluted part of the bundle zone, the AQP4/2 and Na+,K+-ATPase but not the AQP3 or AQP15 antibodies stained tubule segments, with both AQP4/2 and Na+,K+-ATPase staining the EDT, and with low-level AQP4/2 staining of two other tubules of the bundle, which were most likely to be the proximal 1a (PIa) and intermediate II (IS II) tubules. The AQP4/2 antibody also stained the EDT in the straight bundle zone. The mouse anti-NKCC T4 antibody stained the apical region of EDT tubules in the convoluted bundle zone, suggesting that the antibody was binding to the NKCC2 cotransporter. The AQP15 antibody appeared to bind to the peritubular sheath surrounding bundles in the bundle zone. Due to the AQP4/2 antibody staining in the EDT that immediately proceeds and continues into the LDT, this suggested that the strong AQP4/2, AQP15 and Na+,K+-ATPase antibody staining was located at the beginning of the LDT and therefore the strong AQP3 was located at the end of the LDT. The staining of all three AQP antibodies was blocked by the peptide-antigen used to make each one, suggesting that all the staining is specific to each antibody.


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