Association Between Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Sleep Quantity in Pregnant Women

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Maternal and Child Health Journal






Introduction: To determine the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with overall sleep duration among pregnant women.

Methods: Data from the 2011 and 2012 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used. All women (n = 2951) of childbearing age (18–44 years) who were pregnant and responded to all fruit and vegetable consumption and sleep duration questions were included. Covariates included age, race, education level, exercise, and marital status. Data were analyzed using linear and ordinal logistic regression.

Results: Total daily fruit and vegetable consumption was not associated with sleep duration among pregnant women, controlling for confounders [β = −0.03, (−0.07, 0.00)]. Orange and green vegetable consumption were both inversely associated with sleep duration [β = −0.19, (−0.38, −0.01) and β = −0.20, (−0.33, −0.08) respectively]. Ordinal logistic regression found that the odds of meeting or exceeding sleep time recommendations increased slightly with each unit increase in total fruit and vegetable consumption [OR = 1.05 (1.003, 1.092)] and for every unit increase in fruit consumption [OR = 1.12 (1.038, 1.208)]. Women who exercised within the past 30 days reported approximately 20 min of additional sleep compared to those who did not [β = 0.32 (0.16, 0.49)]. Age, employment status, and marital status were also independently associated with sleep duration.

Discussion: Sleep duration in pregnant women was associated with exercise and other demographic factors, but only mildly associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. Future research should investigate the effects of additional factors including sleep quality, gestational age, family status and other medications as potential confounders.