The purpose of this study was to investigate loyalty profiles in among consumers of western-style coffee shops within the emerging market of Kuwait. The loyalty profiles were developed based on the typology presented by Dick & Basu (1994), where buyers can be truly loyal, spuriously loyal, latently loyal, or not loyal to a specific brand. Added to these four loyalty types are the inclusion of two specific true loyalty categories, preferent true loyalty and insistent true loyalty. The study presents evidence that a large proportion of customers fall into the true loyalty category. However, only about five percent of the market exhibits insistent true loyalty, where they are loyal to only one brand at the exclusion of all others. Instead, the vast majority of respondents exhibited the brand preferent form of loyalty, choosing to periodically switch their purchases between a small number of retailers.
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Pleshko, Larry P. and Heiens, Richard A., "Analyzing True Loyalty in the Middle Eastern Market: Brand Preference and Brand Insistence" (2019). Association of Marketing Theory and Practice Proceedings 2019. 13.