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Previous research suggested that customer participation resulted in greater customer satisfaction for the service provider. Specifically, earlier research differentiated Service Customer Engagement (CE) from Service Customer Participation (CP), where the former was ideation and the latter was practical application/execution. In other words, CE was more psychological, where customers think, feel, and trust. Conversely, CP was more behavioral, or physical, where customers act and do.

The point of this research is to translate previous learning to other high-involvement purchases. Research indicates that services high in credence, high contact, as well as high-involvement (Sharma and Patterson 1999) seem to be particularly relevant and responsive to customer participation and customer co-production of value (Plé, Lecocq, and Angot, 2010). This study works to translate learning from the service industry to higher education where the professor is service provider and the student is customer/co-producer. Three propositions are posited. Conclusions and future research are also discussed.

About the Authors

Wendy Gillis is a DBA Candidate at Jacksonville University’s Davis College of Business. Her dissertation, “How Customer Engagement and Customer Participation Effect Customer Satisfaction of Professional Service Delivery and Provider” investigates the empirical relationship between Customer Engagement and Customer Participation in the professional services industry such as such as legal, architecture, financial/insurance services, engineering, accounting, medicine, and real estate. She is a member of the Beta Gamma Sigma international business honor society and is expected to graduate by Spring 2018. The author can be contacted at

Douglas Johansen is the Associate Dean, Graduate Director, and Associate Professor of Marketing & International Business at Jacksonville University’s Davis College of Business. He also has over twenty-five years of corporate experience in International Marketing and Business Development and has worked and lived all over the globe. His research interests include International Marketing, International Business, Marketing Strategy, Emerging Markets and Entrepreneurship, topics that form the basis for a wide range of scholarly publications, conference presentations and other scholarly work. The author can be contacted at

Shiri D Vivek (Ph.D., The University of Alabama), Associate Professor of Marketing and Supply Chain Management, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI. Dr. Vivek has published several research articles in the areas of customer engagement, outsourcing, supplier alliances and related areas. Dr. Vivek has published over 40 research articles in journals across the world. These include Journal of Operations Management, International Marketing Review, Journal of the Marketing Theory and Practice, Journal of World Business and Journal of Services Research, among others. The author can be contacted at

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