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Consumer Warfare Theory was first proposed by Burns, Manolis and Warren. The original work hypothesized six strategies that consumers would pursue when a rival consumer purchased a product.

A study was conducted to assess the affect towards one’s rival that determines the strategies of product purchases. A model was hypothesized that reflected the strategies that rivals followed given the affect toward one’s rival.

The positive and negative affects were measured with multiple scales. The hypothesized strategies were also measured with multiple scales. The scales formed indicator variables for the constructs in the model.

Several models were evaluated to assess the path coefficients, reliability and validity. The analysis was conducted using SmartPLS.

Initially the model with positive affect and five hypothesized constructs of product purchase reaction was tested. A factor analysis of the positive and negative affect indicators resulted in two factors that were negatively related. Therefore the positive affect was chosen for the initial model construct. The results indicated that the model had good fit but did not have discriminant validity as the HetroTrait-MonoTrait Ratio indicated that two of the constructs did not have discriminant validity. In addition, the path coefficient for one construct was not significant.

After eliminating two indicator variables and combining the two constructs that did not have discriminant validity, the model still had a non-significant path coefficient for one of the affect constructs.

The model was then modified to include both positive and negative affects. The process of evaluating alternative models and eliminating the same indicators in the previous model was repeated. Adding the negative affect resulted in a model with significant path coefficients for the construct that had non-significant path coefficients in the previous model. The final model had discriminant validity.

The research summarizes the development of a final model that was reliable and valid.

About the Authors

David J. Burns, D.B.A. (Kent State University) is Chair and Professor of Marketing and Professional Sales, Kennesaw State University. He has co-authored several books, published over 100 journal articles and book chapters, and presented over 200 papers. His research interests include retail location and atmospherics, ethics, and consumer culture.

Jennifer Hutchins, Ph.D. (University of Memphis) is Assistant Professor of Marketing and Professional Sales, Kennesaw State University. She teaches advertising and promotion, focusing on building relationships with local and regional business owners while developing an actual promotional campaign. She has also published articles involving consumer attitudes toward pricing of green products, advertising messages and overarching theoretical issues in green marketing.

Rick Mathisen, Ph.D. (Michigan State University) is Professor of Marketing and Professional Sales, Kennesaw State University. He is the conference manager for the Association of Marketing Theory and Practice and the Editor of the Journal of Applied Marketing Theory. Dr. Mathisen has published articles on the .relationships between marketing investments and firm value, student enrollment in online learning courses and the design of business incubators.

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