Results: Although no statistically significant differences were found, a remarkable trend was observed. Shoulder extension torque increased 15% (13.97 to 16.09 Newton-meters [Nm]) for TG, compared to a 1% (9.77 to 9.90 Nm) increase for CG between pre- and post-tests. Similar results were observed in elbow extension (3.90 to 9.60 Nm, 7.20 to 15.5 Nm, for CG and TG). Shoulder flexion torque increased more for TG (from 2.10 to 4.07 Nm, pre and post) than for CG (1.60 to 3.07 Nm). Similar results were observed with elbow flexion. A 35% reduction of peak extension torque during passive stretching at 10 (4.93 to 3.07 Nm) and 30 deg / s (5.27 to 3.40 Nm) was observed among TG but not CG. The reduction of peak power during passive stretching indicates a reduction of spasticity.

Conclusion: Power training may facilitate improvements in strength and reductions in spasticity among individuals with CP.

]]>In addition to soliciting explanatory models used by respondents in different cultures and situations, anthropologists find themselves on the front lines of public health and policy attempts at affecting behavioral change. As such, this applied-focused volume will be of utility to scholars and practitioners in applied and medical anthropology, as well as to scholars and professionals in public health and other disciplines. The volume's authors are professional and student anthropologists from both public health practice and academia. Chapters are geographically diverse, containing lessons learned from attempts to combat obesity by anthropologically focusing on culture, history, economy, and power relative to obesity causation, prevention, and intervention. The Applied Anthropology of Obesity: Prevention, Intervention, and Identity candidly provides rich information about social identity, obesity, and treatment. ]]>

Background: No validated multiscale instruments exist that measure community members' views on biobanking and biospecimen donation. This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the English-language BANKS (Biobanking Attitudes and Knowledge Survey).

Methods: The BANKS was created by item generation through review of scientific literature, focus groups with community members, and input from a community advisory board. Items were refined through cognitive interviews. Content validity was assessed through an expert panel review. Psychometric properties of the BANKS were assessed in a sample of 85 community members.

Results: The final BANKS includes three scales: attitudes, knowledge, and self-efficacy; as well as three single items, which evaluated receptivity and intention to donate a biospecimen for research. Cronbach α coefficients for two scales that use Likert response format indicated high internal consistency (attitudes: α, 0.88; self-efficacy: α, 0.95). Content validity indices were moderate, ranging from 0.69 to 0.89. Intention to donate blood and intention to donate urine were positively correlated with attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, and receptivity to learning more about biobanking (*P* values range from 0.029 to <0.001).

Conclusions: The final BANKS shows evidence of satisfactory reliability and validity, is easy to administer, and is a promising tool to inform biospecimen research. Additional studies should be conducted with larger samples considering biospecimen donation to further assess the reliability and validity of the instrument.

Impact: A valid and reliable instrument measuring community members' views about biobanking may help researchers evaluate relevant communication interventions to enhance understanding, intention, and actual biospecimen donation. A Spanish-language BANKS is under development.

]]>**Background:** The purpose of this study was to examine urban vs. rural differences on the relationship between family contextual variables and adequacy of insurance coverage and impact on employment for among families with a child with Cerebral Palsy from a nationally representative sample.

**Methods:** A retrospective, observational study was carried out using data from the National Survey of Children with Special Healthcare Needs.

**Results:** A total of 744 participants reported as having a child with a diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy and were included in the sample. Logistic regression analyses, adjusting for urban and rural setting revealed different predictors of adequacy of insurance coverage and impact on employment. Among urban respondents, three variables with odds ratios ranging from 1.33 to 1.58 served as protective factors, increasing the likelihood of adequate insurance coverage. Four variables with odds ratios ranging from 1.41 to 1.79 decreased the likelihood of negatively impacting employment. Among rural families, there was only one significant protective factor for adequacy of insurance coverage (odds ratio 1.80) and one for decreasing the chances of impact on employment (odds ratio 2.53).

**Conclusion:** Families in rural areas caring for a child with CP have few protective factors for adequate insurance coverage and impact on familial employment.

**Brief Description:** The broad goals of this writing assignment are two-fold: 1) To delve deeper into the inner workings of a chosen proof and explore fundamental motivation of the chosen result. 2) To enhance student learning in the area of academic writing in the discipline of mathematics.

By walking the students through a process of academic writing, we address the following DQP proficiencies: Specialized Knowledge, Applied and Collaborative Learning and Intellectual Skills - Use of Information Resources, Mathematics-Specific Intellectual and Practical Skills and Communicative Fluency.

**Background and context:** This assignment has been used in a Mathematical Structures (introduction-to-proofs) course and has been modified slightly for use in a Modern Algebra I course in Spring 2016. The assignment was given near the beginning of the course in Fall 2015 and collected near the end of the course with parts.

Almost all of the students in Mathematical Structures are either Mathematics majors or minors. This includes about half majors and half minors. Almost all of the students in Modern Algebra will be Mathematics majors.

The assignment walks the students through a process of writing a research paper in mathematics from the selection of a topic all the way through drafting and editing. Students are given the freedom to choose a topic but papers were required to be formatted as if they were publishable mathematical research papers (which some may become).

This writing assignment or a modification of it, was used in each of a sequence of three courses as part of the Math Major at Georgia Southern University. These writing assignments together have a broader goal of developing and advancing the students’ skills in argumentation, analysis and synthesis skills through writing. The assignments were scaffolded to develop the writing skills throughout the process while at the same time, producing a polished final work. Writing skills are important for getting jobs but critical for advancement within any career so the overarching goals of these assignments are to prepare our students for advancement in their future careers.

**Alignment and scaffolding:** The assignment should be integrated into the course and discussed throughout the course. Prior to assigning, the students should have been exposed to several proof techniques and basic proof-writing skills. There should also be an activity either before the assignment or during the assignment in which students are guided through the process of a literature search, preferably using MathSciNet.

This assignment was implemented in a sequence of courses within the mathematics major. The selection of topics and expectation of mathematical depth in the writing can be the determining factor in adapting this assignment for various levels. Through deepening the topics and expectations, this assignment can be built upon from one course to the next. For example, a second assignment (either later in the same course or in a subsequent course) could require that students select more advanced topics such as a proof of L’Hospital’s rule in an Analysis course. The students may also be required to satisfy additional expectations, particularly in the areas of audience awareness and clarity of presentation.

**Reflections:** Our response to the assignment has been quite good in general. The students, for the most part, turned in quality work. One of their favorite aspects was the freedom to select a topic. They performed surprisingly well on the peer review, providing numerous excellent comments to their peers.

One challenge that the students face is walking the fine line between citing others’ work and plagiarism. A strategy that we generally suggested was to copy theorem statements verbatim (with citation of course) while the rest should be original. There were still paragraphs copied from web sources but at least it seemed to help.

Revisions have been made on the timing and an outline component has been removed (since these papers should generally all follow the same outline).

An important aspect in the implementation is keeping the students motivated and making it clear why this (and any writing) assignment is important. We noticed that student performance and attitude was directly correlated to the motivation of the assignment and the emphasis on the importance of writing.

]]>In 1883, J.W.L. Glaisher published the first bijective proof of Euler’s partition identity, along with a natural generalization: “the number of partitions of n where no part appears more than m − 1 times equals the number of partitions of n where no part is divisible by m.”

By combining a construction of P.A. MacMahon called “partitions of infinity” and knowledge of G.E. Andrews’ “partition ideals of order 1” with Glaisher’s bijective proof of Euler’s identity, we are led to discover a large class of partition identities with straightforward bijective proofs.

This is joint work with James Sellers and Gary Mullen of Penn State. All terms will be defined and illustrated with concrete examples, so the required mathematical background will be minimal.

]]>In this paper, we study restricted sum formulas involving alternating Euler sums which are defined by ζ(s1,…,sd;ε1,…,εd)=∑n1>⋯>nd≥1εn11⋯εnddns11⋯nsdd,

for all positive integers *s* 1,…,*s* *d* and *ε* 1=±1,…,*ε* *d* =±1 with (*s* 1,*ε* 1)≠(1,1). We call *w*=*s* 1+⋯+*s* *d* the weight and *d* the depth. When *ε* *j* =−1 we say the *j*th component is alternating. We first consider Euler sums of the following special type: ξ(2s1,…,2sd)=ζ(2s1,…,2sd;(−1)s1,…,(−1)sd).

For *d*≤*n*, let *Ξ*(2*n*,*d*) be the sum of all *ξ*(2*s* 1,…,2*s* *d* ) of fixed weight 2*n* and depth *d*. We derive a formula for *Ξ*(2*n*,*d*) using the theory of symmetric functions established by Hoffman recently. We also consider restricted sum formulas of Euler sums with fixed weight 2*n*, depth *d* and fixed number *α* of alternating components at even arguments. When *α*=1 or *α*=*d*, we can determine precisely the restricted sum formulas. For other *α* we only treat the cases *d*<5 completely since the symmetric function theory becomes more and more unwieldy to work with when *α* moves closer to *d*/2.

Bystander Intervention refers to noticing when a sexual assault is about to occur and stepping in to stop it.

Please join us the week of October 24-26 for the following events:

Tuesday, Oct 24: Commit to Consent Rally at the RU Rotunda from 10 a.m. – 2 p.m.

Your understanding of consent may be different from your neighbor’s. This event is focused on educating you and your fellow students on the actual definition of consent.

Wednesday, Oct 25: Guest Speaker, Don McPherson in the RU Ballroom at 7 p.m.

McPherson is a former NFL player and College Football Hall of Famer. He describes himself as an activist, educator and feminist who uses the power and appeal of sport to address complex social justice issues.

Thursday, Oct 26: Day for Survivors @ the RU Rotunda from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m.

This program is focused on advocating for sexual assault survivors, marketing sexual assault prevention resources as well as providing a space for survivors to reclaim and tell their stories. ]]>

**Objective:** Current research has suggested that characteristics of the victim (e.g., sex, race, age) and situational factors (e.g., injury, relationship to the offender) influence police reporting. Questions remain as to what other variables influence police reporting as well as the particular motivational mechanisms that move victims, and others, to report victimization incidents. This study introduces negative emotionality to investigate the direct and mediation effects of emotions on police reporting.

**Method:** Using data from the British Crime Survey, regression models were used to explore the path from individual and incident characteristics to police reporting. Negative emotionality was introduced into the regression models as a key mediator in this pathway.

**Results:** Negative emotionality significantly increased the chance of police reporting. Negative emotionality also mediated some of the influence of individual and incident characteristics on police reporting.

**Conclusion:** The results suggest that emotions are important in determining why some incidents come to the attention of the police. They also reveal that victims who come to the attention of the police are often dealing with a multitude of intense negative emotions. This suggests that programs that focus on victims’ emotions, such as restorative justice, may be more successful in meeting the needs of victims than traditional approaches.