Journal of Quantum Information Science
A survey on agents, causality and intelligence is presented and an equilibrium-based computing paradigm of quantum agents and quantum intelligence (QAQI) is proposed. In the survey, Aristotle’s causality principle and its historical extensions by David Hume, Bertrand Russell, Lotfi Zadeh, Donald Rubin, Judea Pearl, Niels Bohr, Albert Einstein, David Bohm, and the causal set initiative are reviewed; bipolar dynamic logic (BDL) is introduced as a causal logic for bipolar inductive and deductive reasoning; bipolar quantum linear algebra (BQLA) is introduced as a causal algebra for quantum agent interaction and formation. Despite the widely held view that causality is undefinable with regularity, it is shown that equilibrium-based bipolar causality is logically definable using BDL and BQLA for causal inference in physical, social, biological, mental, and philosophical terms. This finding leads to the paradigm of QAQI where agents are modeled as quantum ensembles; intelligence is revealed as quantum intelligence. It is shown that the ensembles formation, mutation and interaction of agents can be described as direct or indirect results of quantum causality. Some fundamental laws of causation are presented for quantum agent entanglement and quantum intelligence. Applicability is illustrated; major challenges are identified in equilibrium based causal inference and quantum data mining.
Zhang, Wen-Ran, Karl E. Peace.
"Causality Is Logically Definable-Toward an Equilibrium-Based Computing Paradigm of Quantum Agents and Quantum Intelligence (QAQI)."
Journal of Quantum Information Science, 4: 227-268.